2023 Convention Posters

Poster Presentations

Friday, April 14, 6:00 pm – 7:00 pm

SP1 - The Effectiveness of Core Vocabulary on an AAC Device in Children From Birth to Five With Expressive and Receptive Language Disorders?

Madison Hissong, BA, Author, Aaron Doubet, MS, CCC-SLP, MM, ABD, Advisor, Fontbonne University

The purpose of this poster is to explain the effectiveness of core vocabulary on an AAC device. An AAC device is considered an assistive technology device that helps those with speech and language impairments. This poster will detail how children with expressive and receptive language disorders need a core vocabulary to communicate. An effective AAC device should include a single-page design, nouns, and new downloadable templates. Emphasizing core vocabulary on an AAC device has also impacted other critical factors within the device. The use of core vocabulary on this device can help those who are non-verbal advance to different levels of communication.

Learner Outcomes: At the end of this presentation, participants will be able to:

  • Identify and distinguish the different templates used on an AAC device.
  • Distinguish the core vocabulary words that go on an AAC device.
  • Recall how core vocabulary words may influence other components on an AAC device.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP2 - Closing the Gap: Socioeconomic Status and Hearing Inequality

Tra’Mya Sims, BS, Author, Jenna Voss, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

For children who are deaf/hard of hearing (DHH) to learn to listen and talk, they need consistent, optimal access to sound (Oticon, 2022). This is achieved by the use of properly fit hearing technology (CIs, HAs, etc). It has been found that individuals of lower socio economic status (SES) have less access to hearing technology, less knowledge about the device use, and subsequently poorer listening/spoken language outcomes (Fuel-Admin, 2021) than their more affluent counterparts. Speech-language pathologists who serve these children and families must learn the specific needs of each client and their family for the most effective outcome. Regardless of socioeconomic status or background, parents play a major role in the development of their children. For children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), parent involvement is vital to ensure children consistently use their hearing technology in order to develop listening and spoken language skills. It is important that practitioners support low SES parents by using appropriate language, provide models of device use, and emphasize the importance of wearing the hearing device in all settings. Thus, families from low SES backgrounds can benefit from the support of practitioners, including speech language pathologists (SLPs), who provide information and resources to achieve consistent device use.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the use of hearing technology to provide access to sound for learners who are DHH learning to listen and talk.
  • Examine the differences in participation and access to services experienced by clients/families from varied SES backgrounds.
  • Identify strength-based opportunities to engage families of low SES in service delivery through intentional collaboration and resource sharing.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP3 - Right-Side Neglect

Julia Do, BS, Author, Carmen Russell, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Right-side neglect is a result of a stroke in the left portion of the brain, however, there is limited knowledge of this consequence in comparison to a stroke in the right side of the brain resulting in left-side neglect. As a result of limited data on ride-side neglect – misdiagnosis have occurred. The most common symptom of right-side neglect revolves around an individual’s daily operations that include naming (identifying objects) and reading. This impairment can impact an individual’s ability to be independent. The purpose of this presentation will be to pinpoint focal areas that will result in RSN, symptoms, and describe how these symptoms will affect daily life.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Differentiate between RSN and LSN.
  • Identify symptoms of RSN and its affects in daily life.
  • Assess different treatment options post diagnosis.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP4 - What Do SLP’s Need to Consider When Picking A Peer for Peer Mediated Intervention?

Alex King, BS, Klaire Brumbaugh, Author,  SLPD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University


Peer-mediated intervention consists of the instruction of particular strategies to a small group of peers that demonstrates strengths in communication and social interactions with classmates diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder(Thiemann-Bourque et. al., 2016). Peer-mediated intervention in a school setting is essential because it integrates the education of all children to provide opportunities to address play and functional communication skills.


A literature review was conducted to provide information about how peers were selected for peer-mediated groups when working with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three articles were selected for review with the peers and the clinical population ranging from 3;0 years to 5;1 years. Based on the articles, all peer-mediated interventions took place in a school-based setting. Intervention occurred in preschool routines including art (e.g., play dough, painting), sensory and fine motor activities, center activities(e.g., kitchen, house, dolls), and snack time.


For peer-mediated intervention to benefit and improve the communication skills of individuals with autism, careful consideration should be made when selecting peers. This poster aims to bring attention to what SLPS should consider when selecting peers for mediated intervention, such as selecting peers based on the same interests, good conversational and social skills, and eagerness to participate. Another significant consideration when selecting peers is looking for children with excellent communication skills and age-appropriate social interactions. Based on these specific qualities, there is evidence to support increased communication and social interactions when selecting peers for peer-mediated intervention with individuals with ASD.

Learner Outcomes:

  • State the importance and benefits of Peer-Mediated Interventions with individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  • Describe the various methods that should be considered when selecting peers for peer-mediated intervention with individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  • List strategies used during Peer Mediated Intervention with individuals with ASD.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP6 - Assessing Auditory Comprehension in Persons with Mild-Moderate Aphasia

Kirsten Johnson, BS, Author, Carmen Russell, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Challenges in auditory comprehension ability are some of the most crippling aspects of aphasia. The degree to which auditory comprehension is impacted by aphasia is variable, can be inconsistent within each subtype, and may depend on the severity of the neural damage. Auditory comprehension impairments for people with mild-moderate aphasia include, but are not limited to, difficulty understanding complex ideas, challenges in word-finding/word meaning, and trouble following multi-step directions. Aphasic patients are often dismissed or unnoticed due to ignorance of symptoms and the frequent, inconspicuous nature of a mild-moderate diagnosis. Understanding deficits in mild-moderate aphasia related to auditory comprehension could aid in choosing beneficial communication modalities for communication partners to use during intervention, interactions, and daily activities.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Viewers will be able to summarize the etiology and symptomatology of mild-moderate aphasia.
  • Viewers will be able to identify the prevalence of auditory comprehension for communication and the effects of deficits related to lifestyles of mild-moderate aphasics.
  • Viewers will be able to describe the screening measurements, assessment strategies, and common treatment methods for comprehension deficits in mild-moderate aphasia.
  • Viewers will be able to apply recommendations for successful interactions with/for mild-moderate aphasics.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP7 - Beyond Oral Care: Impact of oral pathogens on the respiratory system

Iryna Schwartz, BA, Author, Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

The elderly population and medically compromised patients are at greater risk for the development of aspiration pneumonia. This poster intends to examine the relationships between oral dysbiosis and lung pathogenesis. The basic dental science of how oral pathogens invade the oral cavity will be explained. The link between oral disease and aspiration pneumonia will be discussed. Attention to oral health management will also be applied

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify factors influencing the development of oral pathogens.
  • Explain the relationship between oral conditions and aspiration pneumonia.
  • List preventative measures for minimizing the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP8 - Interprofessional Education Among Speech Language Pathology and Athletic Training Students

Lindy Cox, BS, Author; Jordan Guinn, BS, Author; Bret Haffer, BS, Author; Brennen Hudson, BS, Author; Briar Mays, BS, Author; Derek Nugent, BS, Author; Chase Wright, BS, Author; Carlotta Kimble, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor; Molly Cuffe, MA, Advisor, University of Central Missouri

Interprofessional collaboration is the process of various healthcare professionals in different disciplines, such as Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) and Athletic Trainers (AT), working together to deliver the highest quality of care. If a patient does not receive quality care, it can prolong their recovery and impact the outcome of daily living including school performance. This poster presentation will describe interprofessional collaboration, the relationship between the SLP and AT, the assessment and intervention tools for traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and why it is crucial for graduate students to learn and practice interprofessional collaboration in graduate school. This presentation will create awareness of the need for collaboration between SLPs and ATs in the recognition and management of TBI’s in school-based settings.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Define what interprofessional education (IPE) is.
  • Describe what interprofessional collaboration looks like between SLP and AT graduate students for assessment of TBI.
  • Describe what interprofessional collaboration looks like between SLP and AT graduate students for treatment of TBI and the return to play protocol.
  • Discuss the need for IPE experiences for academic achievement among graduate students.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP9 - Perceptions of Social Participation and Quality of Life in Post-Stroke Adults with Expressive Aphasia

Lesley Hooks, BS, Author, Amy Boyt, BS, Author, Megan Bollinger, BS, Author, Brenna Collins, BS, Author, Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Aphasia may be defined as a language disorder resulting from a brain injury that negatively impacts language and multiple aspects of quality of life. Individuals with expressive aphasia typically present with functional comprehension ability but can have trouble speaking fluently. The type and severity of aphasia as well as functional limitations in individuals with aphasia can impact quality of life, which is dependent on an individual’s participation in their own well-being (Spaccavento et. al., 2013). Based on the available literature, social participation including social communication is one of the most important outcomes of recovery from a stroke (Obembe & Eng, 2017). The purpose of this study is to determine how adults with expressive aphasia perceive their level of social participation and overall quality of life. A survey method will be used to collect data. Results and clinical implications pertaining to social participation, social communication, and quality of life in aphasia will be discussed.

Keywords: aphasia, expressive aphasia, quality of life, social communication, social participation

Learner Outcomes:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how persons with expressive aphasia perceive their level of social participation in various activities.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how persons with expressive aphasia perceive their confidence in social communication.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between social participation and quality of life in persons with expressive aphasia.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of social participation in persons with expressive aphasia post-stroke within one year and within five (or more) years.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP10 - Perceptions of Transgender Individuals Toward Speech Language Pathology Services

Alexis Blevins, BS, Author, Halen James, BS, Author, Mallory Leible, BS, Author, Gracie Lay, BS, Author, Lindsey Reichert, BS, Author, Haley Troue, BS, Author, Susan Fulton, PhD, CCC-A, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Speech language pathologists (SLPs) specializing in gender affirming care help individuals match their voice with gender identity by addressing factors such as pitch and communication style. Gender affirming therapy can also help maintain vocal health and prevent injury for transgender individuals. Current perspectives of transgender individuals suggest a high awareness but low experience with gender-affirming speech services. Research is limited regarding the perspectives of transgender individuals toward gender-affirming speech services. The purpose of the current study was to collect perspectives and/or experiences of voice therapy from the LGBTQIA+ community. A 15-question Qualtrics survey was distributed via email, social media, and posters to be completed by members of the LGBTQIA+ community.  Data collection is ongoing, and results will be available at the time of the poster presentation.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe gender-affirming voice therapy.
  • Describe the likelihood of LGBTQIA+ individuals seeking gender-affirming voice therapy.
  • Discuss overall perceptions of LGBTQIA+ communities’ perceptions of gender-affirming voice therapy provided by speech-language pathologists within the United States.

Introductory | Multicultural

SP11 - Implementing In-Line Speaking Valves During Mechanical Ventilation

Grace Davis, Select One, Author, Fontbonne University
Carmen Russel, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

The Passy Muir Valve (PMV) is a one-way speaking valve that allows a patient with a tracheotomy to inspire through the trach tube and exhale through the upper airway and vocal cords. The PMV provides opportunity for increased communication for respiratory patients, decreasing psycho-emotional distress and increasing overall quality of life while the tracheostomy is placed. Additionally, the PMV also improves secretion management and swallowing leading to a reduced risk of aspiration. While it is common to delay intervention until a patient is no longer using mechanical ventilation, a review of literature has indicated benefits to initiating PMV intervention prior to ventilator weaning. A PMV may be placed in-line during mechanical ventilation with the proper knowledge and support from the patient’s respiratory team. By placing a PMV in-line during mechanical ventilation, a patient may experience benefits during the ventilator weaning process and rehab. Beginning early PMV trails provides opportunities for improving overall communication, swallow function, secretion management, and respiratory status. This session will provide an overview of the mechanisms, inclusionary criteria, procedures, and outcomes of implementing in-line speaking valves during mechanical ventilation.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the basic mechanisms and physiology involved with in-line speaking valve placement.
  • Understand the effects of early speaking valve use to overall communication, respiratory status, and swallowing.
  • Distinguish and apply inclusionary criteria for in-line speaking valve placement.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP12 - Perceived Need of a Communication Support Group

Elizabeth Hemmer, Author, Malory Kloeppel, Author, Kayla Overbeck, Author, Amy Teten, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Truman State University

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived need for a communication-skills-based support group at the Truman State University Speech and Hearing Clinic. This study was done in order to provide data for a possible future aphasia and/ or other brain-related diagnoses support group. The participants of this study were individuals with aphasia and other brain disorders who received services within the Northeast Missouri region. Each participant completed a survey detailing their perceived need for a support group, as well as demographic information. A week later, each participant attended a short educational presentation about the benefits of support groups for people with brain injuries. Immediately following the presentation, the participant completed the previous survey. Data is in the process of being collected, and results will be available at the time of the convention.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the perceived need for a communication-skills-based support group.
  • Identify whether an educational lesson about support groups will change the perceived need for one.
  • Describe at least three benefits of participating in a support group, as identified in literature review.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP13 - Bilingual caregivers’ perspectives of autism services in the United States: A scoping review

Molly Hoferle, BS, Author, Elizabeth Roepke, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

With the growing population of bilingual, Latinx individuals in the United States comes the need for culturally sensitive speech therapy services for bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this scoping review is to identify major themes in the current literature regarding the perspectives of caregivers of Latinx, autistic children. This poster investigates caregivers’ perspectives of the diagnostic process, assessment process, and social communication intervention approaches. We searched the databases PubMed Central, Scopus, SAGE, and ASHA Wire for qualitative research and review articles with bilingual, Latinx populations. The search conducted yielded a total of 12 qualitative sources describing caregiver perspectives of autism services in the United States and Latin America. Our preliminary analysis reveals the following themes: the lack of accessibility of culturally and linguistically sensitive services, family barriers to an autism diagnosis, and the stigma of autism being a barrier to a diagnosis. Most of the articles found in the database searches studied caregivers’ perspectives of the diagnostic and assessment process, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding caregivers’ perspectives on social communication interventions for CLD populations. We will discuss the need for ethnographic interviewing practices to help clinicians learn about caregivers’ perspectives.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe how caregivers of autistic, Spanish-English bilingual children living in the United States and Latin America perceive speech therapy approaches.
  • Describe the need for culturally and linguistically responsive social communication interventions.
  • Describe how ethnographic interviewing approaches could help speech-language pathologists provide culturally responsive services.

Intermediate | Multicultural

SP43 - Evaluation of Speech Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate and Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

ASHA SIG 5, MA, CCC-SLP, Author, Lynn Grames, MA, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

ASHA SIG 5 offers this poster as a practical review of assessment and management approaches for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Causes of VPD are outlined and types of resonance disorders are described. This poster focuses on differential diagnosis and management algorithms for addressing articulation and resonance disorders in children with repaired cleft palate and/or suspected VPD. Collaboration between the community SLP and the Cleft Palate Team is emphasized.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify and describe the 3 types of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VP insufficiency, VP incompetency, and VP mislearning).
  • Describe the obligatory speech features of VPD and differentiate these from compensatory articulation errors associated with VPD.
  • Describe two specific evaluation techniques for assessing resonance.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

Saturday, April 15, 7:00 am – 8:00 am

SP5 - Factors Affecting Correct Diagnosis of Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion

Nicolas Valdez, Author, Carmen Russell, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion is a laryngeal disorder where sudden, inappropriate adduction of the true vocal folds during inspiration causes dyspnea. Due to the respiratory distress found with this disorder, it is often misdiagnosed for asthma and a correct diagnosis is often not made until after the patient has undergone costly office visits, procedures, and pharmaceutical interventions. It may take years of inappropriate treatment with no benefit to receive a correct diagnosis for this disorder. The aim of this poster presentation is to provide education on how to identify traits of PVFM differentially from asthma, to learn the triggers and causes of this disorder, and how to manage the symptoms of PVFM.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify traits specific to PVFM
  • Identify triggers and causes of PVFM
  • Manage symptoms of PVFM

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP15 - Parent Knowledge and Perceptions of Language Development and Facilitation Strategies

Maggie Dill, BS, Author, Emily Briese, BS, Author, Alivia Bauman, BS, Author,  Samantha Washington, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Previous research has discovered a positive effect on parent training to enhance child language development. For ages birth to 5, parent education is often the most feasible and cost-effective treatment, since not everyone has access to or can afford early intervention services. There is a lack of research determining parental knowledge of typical language development and language facilitation strategies. Ideally, all parents will be exposed to knowledge of language development and facilitation, but this is often not realistic with governmental budget cuts. The purpose of this study is to examine in more detail the efficacy of education on parent knowledge, as well as to evaluate prior knowledge. Missouri parents of English-speaking children aged 2 to 5 provided demographic data, completed a pre-test using a 100-point scale, watched an educational video, and completed a post-test with the same scale design. The video contained information about normal language milestones, as well as language facilitation strategies that can be implemented (expansion, recasting, parallel talk, self-talk). Research is ongoing. Demographic data will be analyzed to determine trends in knowledge. Pre and post-test scores will be analyzed using a t-test to determine if the education was successful in increasing parent knowledge and confidence. Results will be available at the time of the presentation.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Recognize discrepancies between knowledge of normal language development and language facilitation strategies between parents of children with and without language disorders.
  • Critique parent education as an effective teaching method to increase caregiver awareness of language and promoting language rich environments.
  • Distinguish the most common demographic factors among parents with minimal knowledge of normal language development and language facilitation strategies.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP16 - Augmentative and Alternative Communication Education with Nursing Students, Addressing the Knowledge Gap

Kaylee Anderson, BS, Author, Skyler Hornbeak, BS, Author, Abriana Record, BS, Author, Misty Tilmon, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Knowledge of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems is critical to providing care to patients that use AAC. Nursing students are introduced to many aspects of care for a variety of individual patients throughout their schooling. While Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) also work with a variety of patients, they also receive training in various communication modalities including AAC and AAC users. Basic knowledge of AAC systems can affect the outcomes of a patient that communicates using a system. The purpose of this study was to: a) examine knowledge, comfortability, and confidence of nursing students using an AAC system, prior to and following an informational presentation about AAC, b) measure the willingness to collaborate with other healthcare professionals following the above-mentioned presentation, c) identify patients who would benefit from AAC and different types of AAC systems. Pre- and post-focus groups and surveys were utilized to collect information about the knowledge, comfortability, and confidence of nursing students regarding AAC. The survey was administered to 25 Southeast Missouri State University nursing students before and after a video about (AAC) devices presented by graduate SLP students in the Southeast Missouri State University Communication Disorders Department. Results will be presented to determine pre-post educational changes in nursing students’ knowledge and perceptions.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Determine the general knowledge and experiences of nursing students related to Augmentative and Alternative Communication.
  • Summarize the comfortability and confidence of nursing students with Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Augmentative and Alternative Communication users.
  • Describe the importance of interprofessional collaboration between Speech-Language Pathologists and other medical professionals when working with patients who are Augmentative and Alternative Communication users.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP17 - Benefits Of Using Non-Words In Treatment For Speech Sound Disorders

Kaylee Anderson, BS, Skyler Hornbeak, BS, Abriana Record, BS, Misty Tilmon, EdD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

This poster aims to examine why speech therapists use non-words (NWs) to treat speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children. The science behind lexical and phonological learning can play a role in using non-words in therapy. Both real and non-words have been used to treat speech sound disorders. Using real words in treatment can help the child with sound generalizations, while using non-words, the child focuses exclusively on the words’ articulation and phonological forms. Knowledge of what non-words, phonological, and lexical representations are will better help understand the benefits of using non-words in therapy sessions. Speech therapists’ most conventional practice is using real words in treating speech sound disorders. Research has shown that using non-words can potentially have more significant phonological learning outcomes. A literature review of six articles was completed from the years 2005 to 2019. Few studies have used non-words in treating children with speech sound disorders. Studies say there needs to be more research on boosting phonological learning with word characteristics. In contrast, some say that using non-words may increase learning interventions and have more significant phonological knowledge. Children with speech impairments might have a more challenging time with non-words due to their understanding of phonological representations than children without speech impairments. Using non-words unknown to children can be more effective than real words because they use their phonological and lexical representation skills.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the difference between non-words, phonological and lexical representations.
  • State the clinical implications so far in research over using non-words in therapy.
  • Explain the effectiveness of using non-words in treating speech sound disorders in the current studies.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP18 - Using Automatic Speech-to-Text Transcription in Language Sample Analysis

Lucy Heller, Author, Sara Steele, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

Language Sample Analysis is an important aspect of a comprehensive language assessment. It serves as a supplemental test, often utilized in addition to several standardized tests. With this being said, language sample analysis is not practiced regularly by the majority of Speech-Language Pathologists primarily due to barriers of time or efficiency, and lack of training in proper analysis or analysis programs. The purpose of this study is to identify whether time and efficiency can be addressed by automatic transcription via a speech-to-text program. Audio narrative language samples produced by typically developing school-age children will be used. Transcriptions will be constructed by Microsoft Dictate and compared to transcriptions created by trained transcribers. Utterance segmentation and word-level accuracy will be compared between the two transcript types. The results from this study will help to identify whether speech-to-text offers a means of reducing barriers to language sample use by Speech-Language Pathologists.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the barriers that exist for Speech-Language Pathologists in regards to performing language sample analysis.
  • Describe the benefits of including language sample analysis in comprehensive language testing.
  • Express the accuracy of speech-to-text automatic transcription compared to human transcription by trained transcribers for school-age narrative language samples.
  • Compare average time for human transcription to automatic transcription/correction for school-age narrative language samples.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP19 - Pragmatic differences between males and females diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder

Abigail Walter, BS, Author, Phillip Hewitt, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

This session will discuss the pragmatic differences between males and females diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An overview of the treatment methods that are commonly used when targeting pragmatics will be discussed. The current diagnostic criteria for ASD will also be provided. Findings gathered from a literature review indicate a difference in language skills and pragmatic challenges that are seen in females compared to males diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, the findings indicate that females who meet the diagnostic criteria for ASD are formally diagnosed with autism at a lower rate than males who meet the same criteria. These findings indicate a need for careful consideration of biological sex when diagnosing and treating autism spectrum disorder due to the difference in how ASD presents in males and females.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the symptoms and diagnostic criteria for ASD.
  • Differentiate between the pragmatic deficits in males compared to females with ASD.
  • Identify that treatment methods may be suitable based on biological sex.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP20 - Impact of Social Isolation on Neuroplasticity in Adults Post-Neurological Injury

Harriett Long, BS, Author, Michael Hauge, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

During the year 2020, a worldwide quarantine was set in place as a preventative strategy to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Michigan Health Lab in June of 2020, 56% of people over the age of 50 said they sometimes or often felt isolated from others. In comparison, this statistic increased by over 100% from the original 27% reported back in 2018 (Gavin, 2020). Social isolation (SI) has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans and animals for more than a quarter century (Cacioppo et al., 2014). Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to modify, change, and adapt both structure and function throughout life and in response to experience (Voss et al, 2017).  This presentation will review social isolation and its impact on neuroplasticity in adults post-neurological injury. This poster will also review strategies that can be incorporated to maintain neuroplasticity during social isolation.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the relationship between neuroplasticity and social isolation
  • Explain the importance of socialization and how it impacts brain development/growth
  • List strategies to aid in brain plasticity after a neurological injury while being socially isolated

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP21 - Concert Band and Hearing Health

Tatum Graham, Author, Ilene Elmlinger, AuD, CCC-A, Advisor, Truman State University

University bands are often known for being loud and entertaining and are part of many events, such as performing at football games and concert halls. This research focused on exploring the potential impact participation in a university band program could have on the health and function of a participant’s auditory system. Information was collected via survey regarding the prevalence of auditory system related symptoms, such as tinnitus, and the knowledge and attitudes of college age students regarding hearing health. Sound pressure level measurements were taken at different locations throughout the band during rehearsal to compare the noise level of different instruments and positions to assess the risk of noise exposure that could be damaging to the auditory system.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the decibel level at which sound levels become dangerous to the auditory system
  • List two different types of hearing protection
  • List two symptoms that a person can experience secondary to loud noise exposure

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP22 - Possible Effects Vaping Nicotine has on Laryngeal and Vocal Health

Ashley Reichwein, BS, Author, Michael Hauge, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

The act of smoking electronic cigarettes, known as “vaping”, has increased in popularity in recent years. According to the FDA, 1 in 10, more than 2.5 million, U.S high school and middle school students have reported using e-cigarettes in 2022. In 2018, an estimated 8.1 million U.S adults reported using e-cigarettes (Villarroel et al, CDC). Vaping is defined as “inhaling a smoke-free aerosol through a mouthpiece, which is produced through the heating of a liquid such as glycol or glycerin in an electronic device” (Lyzwinski et al., 2022). Vaping was originally marketed as a safer alternative to traditional smoking; however, research proving potential benefits is lacking (Laucks & Salzman, 2020). In recent years, more research is available discussing the negative effects vaping has on the respiratory system, oral health, and mental health. This presentation will discuss research showing the effects vaping nicotine has on laryngeal, respiratory, and oral health in adolescents and adults who vape nicotine. This presentation will also discuss implications vaping nicotine may have on vocal health and quality. Because research in this topic is limited, this presentation aims to educate participants on what information is available, as well as why more research should be conducted.

Learner Outcomes:

  • List 3 possible effects vaping has on laryngeal and vocal health.
  • Summarize the incidence among the different populations who vape nicotine.
  • Explain why more research on this topic needs to be conducted in this field.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP23 - The Use of AAC to Reduce Challenging Behaviors in Children

Kerri McFarland, BS, Author, Catherine Schroy, PhD, CCC-A, Advisor, Fontbonne University

This session will provide an overview of the use, benefit, and implementation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) with children who present with challenging behaviors. The basic process of when to implement AAC will be discussed. There will be a brief review of literature regarding the benefit of AAC on students with challenging behaviors. Application of this knowledge in practice will also be discussed.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Determine which students could benefit from the implementation of AAC.
  • Recognize the benefit of AAC on students with challenging behavior.
  • Describe areas that this knowledge can translate into their practice.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP24 - Using Virtual Reality to Treat Cognitive & Communication Impairments in Adults

Aubrey Hicks, BA, Author, Kelly Zarifa, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Cognitive and communicative deficits are experienced by individuals with dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and developmental disabilities. Skilled speech therapy services are required for these individuals’ experiencing impairments in communication, memory, problem-solving, and processing. Treatment targets may vary including communication, attention, focus, orientation, word retrieval, and executive functioning. Treatment tasks must be functional, personalized, and purposeful to provide the most functional therapy possible. Virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a means to provide these services for individuals to promote independence in their environment, and in turn, more functional success in real life. VR is the “use of interactive simulations created with computer hardware and software to present users with opportunities to engage in environments that appear and feel similar to real-world objects and events.” This session will provide an overview of VR and its effects on cognitive and communicative impairments in adults.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Outline the concepts of VR therapy and how it could be used as a therapy tool.
  • Select the appropriate VR immersion level for individuals with cognitive and communication impairments.
  • List three characteristics that would indicate a client is a good candidate for VR treatment.
  • Measure SLP’s and patient’s receptiveness to the use of VR in therapy sessions.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP25 - Predicting Long-Term Personality Changes Following TBI

Sarah Baer, BA, Author, Kelly Zarifa, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an acquired neurological disorder caused by trauma to the brain. It affects an estimated 27-69 million people globally per year. Those who have experienced a traumatic brain injury often report changes to their personality immediately and sometimes years after the initial injury. Personality changes like depression, anxiety, mood swings, emotional lability, and impulse control can negatively affect the patient’s recovery. These changes are a result of the damage done to the frontal lobe and other parts of the brain, therefore, it is important to understand the structures and functions of the brain, and how they are affected by a TBI.

Recovery time and severity of personality changes is difficult to determine; factors such as orientation or cognitive abilities immediately following injury, and the duration of post-traumatic amnesia can be predictive of long-term effects of TBI. Research shows that patients who experienced a longer period of time in the post-traumatic amnesia phase of recovery, as well as poorer cognitive skills in the ED, also report personality changes 1-2 years post-injury.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Understand the basic neurological structures and functions associated with TBI.
  • List short- and long-term effects of TBI on personality and cognitive abilities.
  • Discuss factors that may be predictive of long term personality changes following TBI.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP26 - Inconsistent Phonological Disorder and Core Vocabulary Treatment Approach

LeAnne Gildehaus, BS, Olivia Lance, BS, Author, Angela Adrian, MA, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

The purpose of this single case study is to investigate the effects of core vocabulary treatment on inconsistent phonological disorder in a 7-year-old female client. The client presents with highly unintelligible speech and 56% inconsistency on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP). The client has previously participated in speech and language therapy for 4 years including at Saint Louis University Speech Language and Hearing Clinic, First Steps, and elementary school services. Although previous goals have been met, the client remains unintelligible. A core vocabulary treatment approach was initiated on November 17th, 2022. This approach initially targets the consistency of the client’s best production of 50 functional vocabulary words and phrases chosen by the client and her family. Articulation accuracy will be targeted after the client stabilizes productions to 80% consistency. After consistency and accuracy are achieved at 80%, 50 new functional vocabulary words and phrases will be targeted. Sessions occur in-person once a week for 50 minutes with 5-10 minutes of home practice 5 days a week. The DEAP Inconsistency Assessment will be completed 8 weeks and 16 weeks after initial treatment to measure change. The client’s progress will also be monitored through a speech sample analysis. Overall, by targeting functional vocabulary words selected by the client, it is predicted that treatment will improve the client’s phonological planning and reduce speech errors in daily communication.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify three characteristics of inconsistent phonological disorder.
  • List two formal assessments used to diagnose inconsistent phonological disorder.
  • Describe three key elements of core vocabulary treatment.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP27 - Effects of Diabetes on Speech and Language Across the Lifespan

Tayla Slay, BS, Author, Kelly Zarifa, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

According to the CDC, “diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects the way your body turns food into energy”. More than 37 million adults in the United States have diabetes which is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. With diabetes affecting such a large portion of the population, what do speech-language pathologists need to know about how blood sugar affects speech and language in various types of individuals? This literature review explores the effects of language development later in the life of babies born to mothers with diabetes. The effects that diabetes has on adults’ ability to process language will also be identified. The roles of speech-language pathologists in the care of diabetic patients will be explored, and learners will be provided with information about how to best provide care for their diabetic patients. Speech-language pathologists play a vital role in helping their clients affected by diabetes across the lifespan with expressive and receptive language.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the effects that diabetes has on newborns’ speech and language development.
  • Explain the effects that diabetes has on adults’ ability to process language.
  • List 3 takeaways that speech-language pathologists need to know in order to better treat their diabetic patients.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP28 - Using Movement Range to Estimate Articulatory Demands and Dysarthria Deficits

Dahlia Cukierkorn, Author, Ella Meier, Author, Deepthi Crasta, MA, CCC-SLP, Author, Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, University of Missouri

Introduction: This study aimed to 1) determine range of motion (ROM) demands specific to each articulator i.e., jaw (J), lower lip (LL), posterior tongue (PT), and anterior tongue (AT) using word stimuli produced by neurotypical controls and 2) identify articulator-specific ROM deficits in talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) across performance demand tiers.

Methods: J, LL, PT, and AT movements of 12 talkers with ALS, 12 talkers with PD, and 12 controls were recorded using electromagnetic articulography. Participants read aloud 20 multisyllabic words embedded in a carrier phrase. Each target word was produced 5-10 times and the order of the target words was randomized. Vertical ROM was measured for each word.

Results: Three performance demand tiers were established for each articulator based on differences in the control group’s ROM when producing the target words. In talkers with PD, J and LL ROM were significantly reduced even at the lowest tier whereas PT and AT ROM were only significantly reduced at moderate and high tiers. In talkers with ALS, J ROM was significantly reduced at the moderate tier whereas LL, PT, and AT ROM were only significantly reduced at the highest tier. These results suggest that articulatory deficits vary with stimuli-specific motor demands across articulators and clinical groups.

Conclusions: The current study is a starting point for a more systematic assessment of articulatory performance in talkers with dysarthria based on knowledge about the articulatory demands of test stimuli.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe why it is important to leverage articulatory demands of speech stimuli in clinical assessment.
  • Identify distinctive differences in ROM deficits between talkers with ALS, PD, and neurotypical individuals as a function of performance demand tiers.
  • Summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to disease-specific patterns in ROM performance.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP29 - “Entonces el owl vino”: Analysis of language samples from bilingual and monolingual children

Miah Cramer, Author, Elizabeth Roepke, PhD, CCC-SLP, Author, St. Louis University

Language samples are critical for assessment procedures, as they allow speech pathologists to gather a variety of data in a culturally sensitive way. However, most of our information and criteria to guide language sampling procedures comes from the English language. For clinicians, language sample measures can help diagnose language impairments in young children by comparing their performance to that of peers their age. However, there are no clear criteria for language sampling procedures or assessment tools for Spanish speaking children.

This poster explores whether there are differences between English-speaking and Spanish-speaking children’s performance on common language sample measures. Specifically, this poster explores MLU, grammatical errors, and Type Token Ratio (TTR), and syntactic complexity. The data will be taken from language samples from CHILDES. Monolingual English (N=80), monolingual Spanish (N=20), and bilingual English-Spanish (N=89) children, ages 7-12, completed a narrative retell activity. The data will be measured using the CLAN program, as well as manual calculations. Analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, will identify whether there are group differences on language sample measures across language backgrounds. This poster will make recommendations for the assessment of language skills in children with diverse linguistic backgrounds.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify how morphosyntactic differences between English and Spanish affect MLU.
  • Describe similarities and differences in language sample measures for children with diverse language backgrounds.
  • Explain clinical assessment considerations for analyzing language samples when working with children from diverse language backgrounds.

Intermediate | Multicultural

SP30 - The Unfolding Case Study

Miah Cramer, Author, Elizabeth Roepke, Advisor, PhD, CCC-SLP, St. Louis University

As speech-language pathology students, we will become professionals who provide communication and swallowing services. Case studies are often sometimes used within the graduate program to simulate clinical cases. This presentation will describe what an unfolding case study is and what the benefits are of using them. It will discuss the differences between a case study and an unfolding case study and how we can apply this to learning.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Apply the unfolding case study across multiple disorders.
  • Discuss the benefits of implementing an unfolding case study.
  • Describe the differences between an unfolding case study and a traditional case study.
  • Describe an unfolding case study.

Introductory  |  SLP-Educational Topic

Sunday, April 16, 7:15 am – 8:15 am

SP31 - A case study of a Gender Identity Incongruence (Transgender Female) Voice therapy at the UCM University clinic

Derek Nugent, BS, Author, Emily Hines, Author, Greg Turner, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, University of Central Missouri

A 21-year-old transgender female was referred to the Welch Schmidt Center for Communication Disorders at the University of Central Missouri for male to female (MtF) voice therapy. The client (JHE) described that she does not communicate like a female and is misidentified as male by habitual pitch of her voice, nonverbal behaviors, and the use of a masculine vocabulary. History indicated JHE completed a 3-week online YouTube series from TransVoiceLessons. JHE described that she did not have high satisfaction while using this program due to the limited feedback and minimal success while attempting to increase her perceptual pitch to a somewhat feminine vocal quality. During the assessment, JHE presented with vocal strain and limited pitch range when attempting to speak at a higher fundamental frequency. During the assessment, JHE completed a voice and resonance sample and 4 PROMs including the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Transwomen Voice Questionnaire (TWVQ), Gender speech-Voice Presentation (GSVP), Voice-related experiences of non-binary individuals (VENI). JHE was diagnosed with Gender Identity incongruence (Transgender Female) which is the state of having a gender identity that does not correspond to one’s sex assigned at birth. Treatment focused on providing a variety of educational opportunities to educate JHE on differences in pitch, loudness variation, and communication styles of a female speaker. Treatment also included increasing her speaking fundamental frequency and adding pitch flexibility to her new speaking fundamental frequency. Treatment results indicated a decrease in the negative impact of her voice during education and social and environmental situations.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Define what Gender Identity Incongruence is.
  • Describe assessment methods used for Transgender MtF voice therapy.
  • Describe the counseling and treatment goals adopted for this case study.
  • Describe treatment outcomes and the need for continued research in this area.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP32 - Evaluating language skills of children with cleft lip/palate: Parent perceptions

Alexys Bergschneider, BS, Author, Audrey Farnham, BS, Author, Alexis May, BS, Author, Samantha Washington, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Cleft lip and/or palate can cause speech sound errors, particularly on nasal sounds. The inaccurate production of speech sounds can have a negative impact on a child’s language acquisition. The purpose of this study is to determine if children with nonsydromic cleft lip and/or palate have typical language skills compared to their peers, and if their parents have an accurate perception of their child’s language skills.  The researchers interviewed parents of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate aged 4-8 to determine how they perceived the language acquisition of their child. A five-minute spontaneous language sample was collected from the children and then analyzed using the SUGAR language sample analysis. Parents answered questions on a likert scale in which the mode was calculated for each response. The research study is ongoing, and results are not yet available. Findings will be discussed at the time of the presentation.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the language skills of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate.
  • Discuss the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s language skills.
  • Formulate ways to include parents in speech and language therapy for their children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate in order to maximize outcomes.

Advanced | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP33 - Exploring Covert Stuttering

Samantha Griesinger, BS, Author, Emma Heubi, BA, Author, Gregory Turner, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, University of Central Missouri

Evidence-based practice balances research, clinical experience, and client perspective. As research continues to further our understanding of stuttering, it becomes important to share clinical experiences and research to further support these branches of the three-pronged model of evidence-based practice. Exploring research surrounding covert stuttering and the clinical experience of working with an adult person with covert stuttering provides a valuable opportunity to raise awareness about fluency disorders among clinicians. The clinicians will share information about the identification of covert stuttering, assessment procedures and considerations, and instruments and organization of treatment when working with an adult with covert stuttering.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe covert stuttering.
  • Select appropriate instruments for the identification of covert stuttering.
  • Describe treatment methods for covert stuttering.
  • Summarize special considerations for an adult with covert stuttering.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP34 - Building a Bridge to Brain Health

Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, Author, Lauren Landfried, Author, Vicki Moran, Author, Danyelle Del Rosario, BS, Author, Maria Espejo Serrano, BS, Author, Kai Wan, MS, Author, Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, Advisor, St. Louis University

The purpose of this program is to make treating hearing loss and diabetes easier and more manageable on a day-to-day basis. Treating both of these chronic conditions can promote brain health as individuals age. Failure to do so can affect an individual’s quality of life and pose as risk factors for late onset dementia. Addressing both hearing loss and diabetes through an interdisciplinary clinic will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of treatment as well as the patient’s quality of life.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the advantages of interprofessional collaboration.
  • Describe why hearing loss and diabetes were chosen as target conditions in the program.
  • List possible health outcomes related to successful implementation of the program.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP35 - Pharmacologically Induced Stuttering

Lane Vermillion, BS, Author, Greg Turner, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, University of Central Missouri

Adult onset acquired stuttering is an under-researched area in the field of fluency disorders. Adult onset acquired stuttering is often divided into neurogenic acquired stuttering and psychogenic or functional acquired stuttering (Guitar, 2019; Duffy, 2020). The incidence of neurogenic acquired stuttering (NAS) is low and the disorder is associated with a variety of etiologies (e.g., tumor, stroke, traumatic brain injury).  NAS can also result from drug toxicity. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the literature on pharmacologically induced stuttering. The literature review will focus on the following: 1) Providing a summary of the specific drugs and/or drug classes which are linked to adult onset acquired stuttering. 2) Summarizing the hypothesized role that dopamine plays in stuttering. 3) Providing a summative description of disfluencies, secondary behaviors (avoidance and escape behaviors), as well as feelings and attitudes across the varying etiologies of adult onset acquired stuttering. 4) Discussing the direction of treatment involving pharmacological methods. 5) Discussing the potential role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in treating pharmacologically induced stuttering. Suggestions for future research will be provided.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify which classes of drugs are associated with pharmacologically induced stuttering.
  • Describe the hypothesized role that dopamine plays in different types of fluency disorders.
  • Identify treatment methods for pharmacologically induced stuttering.
  • Describe the role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in the diagnosis and treatment of pharmacologically induced stuttering.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP36 - Attitude and Perception of Students: Online Synchronous versus In-Person Lecture

Jessica Phillips, BS, Author, Callyn Kinney, BS, Author, Ilene Elmlinger, AuD, CCC-A, Advisor, Truman State University

Since March 2020, the mode of course delivery has changed from predominantly in-person to fully online or hybrid. This study explored the attitudes and perceptions of college students towards the different class formats seen in education today. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of what modes of course delivery offer students an environment conducive to learning and retaining information presented in their courses. Data were collected via a survey among college students and the results showed their experiences and preferences for course delivery formats.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify one way that course delivery impacts student participation.
  • Recognize the effect on student concentration that online synchronous classes have.
  • List three activities students are likely to engage in during an online synchronous class meeting.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP37 - Perceptions and Education Regarding Transgender Voice Therapy Within Missouri Universities

Bri Bechtel, BS, Author, Sarah Locke, BS, Author, Dee Telting, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Sarah Lockenvitz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Missouri State University

While transgender voice and language therapy is not the most common area that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) will encounter in their field, it is becoming an increasingly popular service. Despite this, the literature suggests that nearly 50% of SLPs feel that transgender voice and communication were not covered within their graduate curriculum. Missouri has historically had a lower prevalence of transgender adults, but recent studies show significant growth in the prevalence of transgender teens within Missouri. This indicates a potential need for increased intervention in the area of transgender voice and language services. Voice and language intervention can help increase the quality of life for transgender individuals to help align their voice and communication with their affirmed gender. The purpose of this research is to determine the attitudes, awareness, and education of full-time SLP faculty and SLP second-year graduate students.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the need for continued education regarding transgender voice services.
  • Identify the current educational trends regarding transgender voice therapy within Missouri universities.
  • Recall the importance of voice intervention and it’s impact on quality of life for transgender clients.

Intermediate | Multi-Interest

SP38 - Familiarity and Implementation of LPAA among Speech Language Pathologists from a Range of Clinical Settings

Jordan Chalhoub, BA, Author, Jennifer Pratt, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Klaas Bakker, PhD, Advisor, Missouri State University

In order to increase the overall quality of life for clients with aphasia, speech-language pathologists need to provide treatment that is client-driven with a focus on re-engagement in life activities. The Life Participation Approach to Aphasia is a service-delivery model with these core values. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a speech-language pathologist’s setting and years of experience have a correlation with their overall knowledge of the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia. Furthermore, the study will examine whether these factors have a correlation to their familiarity with the approach, their frequency of implementation, or their methods for data collection using this model.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the relationship between a speech language pathologist’s familiarity and frequency of implementation with Life Participation Approach to Aphasia.
  • Describe a setting’s relationship to a speech language pathologist’s familiarity and frequency of implementation with Life Participation Approach to Aphasia?
  • Discuss how speech language pathologist’s measure outcomes when using the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia?

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP39 - Dysphagia Course Design: A Survey

Samantha Duffy, BS, Author, Natalie Green, BS, Author, Brandon Jewell, BS, Author, Misty Tilmon, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Southeast Missouri State University

Few studies have been conducted investigating dysphagia coursework in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) programs and what they entail (Vose, et al., 2018). The purpose of this study was to explore course designs and curricula in accredited CSD programs across the United States. Specific aspects of curricula include learning objectives, course content, assignments, readings, and resources will be explored. An electronic survey link was emailed to all CSD programs accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in the United States. Qualitative analysis was completed to determine specifics of course design. The results of the survey will be presented.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify common features of dysphagia curricula including course sequence, course delivery format, and credit hours.
  • Identify three requirements commonly utilized by faculty in dysphagia curricula.
  • Identify common perceptions of faculty related to teaching dysphagia and impacts of course delivery on student outcomes.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP40 - Academic and Clinical Training in Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies

Haley Lynch, BS, Author, Lynn Grames, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

Studies show that cleft lip and palate is one of the most common birth defects in the United States (Centers for Disease Control, 2006). Though prevalence is high, there is an indication that the number of speech-language pathology programs with coursework dedicated to cleft palate and craniofacial anomalies is declining (Miles & Hardin-Jones, 2019). A lack of coursework in this area could impact how services are given to these patients by future clinicians. This poster will present the results of a 15-question survey given to all accredited speech-language pathology programs in Missouri concerning education in cleft palate and craniofacial disorders

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify the speech pathology programs in Missouri that offer cleft palate and craniofacial anomalies coursework.
  • Identify how cleft palate and craniofacial anomalies coursework is included in curriculum (academic, clinical, or both).
  • Identify accredited programs that included coursework taught by a member of ASHA SIG 5 and/or the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP41 - Language Predictors of Children's Conversational Timing

HeeEun Jeon, BS, Author, Elizabeth Kelley, PhD, CCC-SLP, Author, Nicholas Smith, PhD, Author, University of Missouri

Conversational turn-taking is an important indicator of language development in children as human communicative interaction is characterized by a precisely timed exchange of information. Infants develop turn-taking from the second month since their birth, and our previous research (Smith & McMurray, 2018) has shown that in mother-child dialogue, a child’s response latency decreases with age. However, as shown by (Hilbrink et al. 2015), infants’ responses slow down at around 9 months as their language abilities begin to develop. So, response latency has the potential to tell us about both general age-related changes as well as the child’s language development. This present study asks whether children with more advanced language, characterized by standardized measures of vocabulary and language complexity (MLU) and lexical diversity (TTR), respond more quickly. This study analyzed a dataset of mother and child interaction at 36 months of age from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), using a combination of acoustical analysis of dialogue timing, Computerized Language ANalysis (CLAN), and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). The results revealed that children with richer language were slower, not quicker, to respond to their mothers. This suggests effects beyond mere age. Children with higher TTR scores generate more linguistically complex utterances that may take more time to plan and execute. This suggests that multiple factors might influence a child’s latency: general developmental effects in interaction with language abilities.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the development of turn-taking in early childhood
  • Describe how timing measures of dialogue relates to emerging language ability
  • Distinguish how standardized measures of vocabulary interact with language sample measures to predict temporal measure of mother-child dialogue

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP42 - Therapy Techniques for Speech Sound Disorders Associated with Repaired Cleft Palate

ASHA Special Interest Group 5 Craniofacial and velopharyngeal Disorders, MS, CCC-SLP, Author, Lynn Grames, MS, CCC-SLP, Advisor, St. Louis University

ASHA Special Interest Group 5, Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, Continuing Education Committee offers this poster as a practical guide for therapeutic management of school-aged children with speech disorders associated with repaired cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Appropriate referral to a craniofacial team and evidence-based treatment techniques are emphasized.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe three general therapy guidelines for children with cleft palate speech or VPD.
  • Identify and describe common compensatory articulation errors associated with cleft palate speech or VPD.
  • Describe three specific speech therapy techniques to achieve correct articulatory placement.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP44 - A Cross-Linguistic Survey of Non-English Speech Sounds

Caitlin Reyes (Redmond), MA, Author, Julia Sanchez, BS, Author, Sarah Lockenvitz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Missouri State University

This study will explore speech sounds from numerous languages outside of Standard American English (SAE) speech sounds. Additionally, common speech sound errors in English produced by learners of English will be analyzed. Clinical researchers and experts who work with learners of English will provide their insight on how Speech-Language Pathologists and related professionals can best work with individuals of other cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The overall purpose of this study will be to raise awareness of speech sounds and their differences in different languages, build cultural awareness, and support those with linguistic interest.

The study will result in an educational product in the form of a poster to be presented by the investigative team and a PowerPoint presentation to be used in coursework at Missouri State University by the principal investigator, Sarah Lockenvitz, Ph.D., Associate Professor within the MSU Communication Sciences and Disorders Department. The presentation will serve as a guide for students pursuing studies in phonetics or similar studies of speech sounds and their application in working with individuals of various linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify non-english speech sounds and their associated IPA symbols from some of the following languages: Spanish, Mongolian, Romanian, and Nepali.
  • Identify how English language learners’ English production errors can be influenced by their first language.
  • Describe how knowledge of non-English speech sounds contributes to a building of cultural awareness and appreciation for the involved languages.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP45 - Maternal depression and the timing and language content of mother-child dialogue

Rylan Batten, BA, Author, Bridget Holterman, BS, Author, Beth Kelley, PhD, CCC-SLP, Author, Nicholas Smith, PhD, Author, University of Missouri

The back-and-forth turn-taking pattern of dialogue is an essential element of communication and early language experience. Not only does this process serve linguistic functions between caregivers and children in support of children’s still-developing language abilities, it also provides social-emotional input to guide the regulation of attention, emotion, and attachment.

In this study, we examine mother-child dialogue between mother-child dyads from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP). Acoustical analysis was used to measure the precise timing (i.e., latency in milliseconds) of mothers’ and children’s responses to each other at 14 and 36 months of age as function of maternal depression risk (measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale; CES-D). Mothers’ and children’s latencies decreased with age and significantly predicted each other (replicating developmental and dyadic effects reported by Smith & McMurray, 2018). Furthermore, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were 11% slower in responding to their children than mothers with low depression risk. In addition to the timing measures of dialogue, on-going analyses are using language sample analysis (CLAN) to examine how the content and complexity of maternal language are both affected by maternal depression risk, and how they predict children’s receptive vocabulary.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the development of mother-child dialogue.
  • Describe the effects of maternal depression on mother-child dialogue.
  • Describe the effects of language timing and content on children’s vocabulary.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP46 - Dementia: Effects on the Language Skills of Bilingual Speakers

Christopher Durr, BS, Author, Ethan Kristek, EdD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Fontbonne University

Dementia is a type of condition that is generally characterized by any progressive decline in the brain’s ability to function cognitively and linguistically, brought by either injury or disease. Around the world, roughly 55 million people, live with dementia, with an incidence rate of nearly 10 million per year. Some of the individuals affected by this condition are also bilingual speakers, who comprise about 43% of the global population (WHO, 2022). Individuals who speak more than one language actively engage in code-switching, where they must alternate between languages. Because of this, speech-language pathologists and other allied health professionals need to know how to properly analyze assessment results for language characteristics seen in bilingual individuals with dementia.

The following review will analyze common characteristics of the language in individuals with dementia and how to create an effective treatment from assessment findings.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify language characteristics that are associated with bilingual individuals with dementia.
  • Identify how to interpret diagnostic results for language characteristics that are associated with bilingual individuals with dementia.
  • Identify their findings of language characteristics to develop an effective treatment plan for bilingual individuals with dementia.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP47 - Aging and Disability Bias

Maggie Quick, BS, Author, Danielle Woody, BS, Author, Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, Advisor, Missouri State University

This presentation will discuss the differences between implicit and explicit bias, the biases associated with aging and disability, and the potential impacts these biases could have on treatment outcomes. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, an estimated 15% of the world population (over 1 billion people) live with one or more disabling conditions. Over 46% of people 60 years and older have disabilities and more than 250 million of these people experience moderate to severe disabilities. These populations are commonly found on the caseloads of speech language pathologists whose biases, whether they are aware of them or not, impact their clinical decision making. These judgments are carried through assessment, evaluation, and treatment of their patients and diminish the quality of care that these vulnerable populations receive. As allied health professionals, it is the responsibility of the SLP to educate themselves on their own biases, adjust their thoughts and behaviors accordingly, and be an advocate for more equitable care within the healthcare system.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the difference between implicit and explicit bias.
  • Define implicit aging and physical disability biases.
  • Discuss the potential impacts of aging and physical disability biases on treatment outcomes.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

Technical Sessions

ST1 - Implementation of Life Participation Approach for Persons with Aphasia

Lauren Blodgett, BS, Monika Bozickovic, BS,  Allison Cosma, BS,  Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

The Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) is a collaborative model which focuses on enhancing life participation and is unique to each PWA. LPAA involves identifying what is important to each person (activities, hobbies, jobs, relationships, etc.) and creating functional goals based on enhancing the overall quality of life. Therapists share the universal goal of guiding clients to be as successful as possible. It is beneficial to familiarize clinicians with approaches that aim to increase the quality of life and contribute highly to the client’s level of success. The purpose of this presentation is to inform listeners about what the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia is, how it benefits individuals with aphasia as well as their caregivers, the significance of it, the resources that are available for both PWA and their caregivers, and how to perform specific activities which observe LPAA. The presenters, a group of three graduate students in the speech language pathology program at Fontbonne University in St. Louis, Missouri, aim to share both personal experiences and impactful scenarios as well as discuss the established research regarding LPAA and successful speech and language therapy for PWA.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Explain the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) and how it relates to persons with aphasia and their caregivers.
  • Discuss the significance of Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) and explain how it can be implemented in the community, as well as what resources are available for Persons with aphasia (PWA) and their caregivers.
  • Perform activities that observe the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

ST2 - The Language of Love: Dating with Aphasia

Eleanor Krobath, BS,  Katelynn Morris, BS,  Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

“Stroke and aphasia can negatively affect a person’s ability to maintain healthy social relationships, both within the family and also with friends and the wider network” (Fotiadou et al., 2014). However, very few studies explicitly target skills needed for dating among clients with aphasia. Survey data was collected from adults with chronic aphasia who identified as “single” and “interested in dating” to determine perceived barriers, confidence, fear, success associated with dating, and previous experience in speech therapy. This session will include a literature review on aspects of communication needed for successful dating, aphasia-related deficits, and the potential impact on the dating process. Participant responses will be analyzed and presented. Additionally, goals, target selection, and other considerations for intervention will be discussed.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify essential communication skills for successful dating
  • Explain how aphasia may impact dating processes
  • Describe the role of the SLP in supporting clients whose goals are related to dating

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST3 - The Effect of Yoga & Mindfulness on Chronic Aphasia

Marisa Perry, BS,  Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Previous research involving aphasic individuals suggests that regular yoga practice may increase quality of life, improve resilience/coping measures, and increase overall cognitive function (Dietz et al., 2020). Additionally, long-term participants of yoga may be provided with neuroprotective benefits, such as increased neuroplasticity (Villemure, C et al., 2015). There are several research studies focused on yoga and overall cognitive health, but there continues to be limited research on the direct link between yoga enrollment and language production, especially in individuals living with chronic aphasia. The effects of yoga and mindfulness meditation on perceived communication, wellness, and confidence were explored among a group of 10 adults with chronic aphasia. Participants attended 60 minutes of yoga followed by 30 minutes of mindfulness meditation for 8-weeks. Survey data was collected after the completion of the program.  Participants reported no increase in overall speech production, but an increase in quality of life & overall willingness to participate in new activities. This preliminary study is consistent with previous studies in which aphasia and quality of life were evaluated but was not conclusive enough to support improvement in language production. Further research is needed to support the direct connection between yoga/mindfulness and expressive language production in aphasic individuals. Implications for future research and implementation of yoga/medication programming will be discussed.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the relationship between yoga/meditation and aphasia
  • List considerations for implementation of yoga/meditation for people with aphasia
  • Identify potential benefits of yoga/meditation for people with aphasia

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST4 - Barriers to AAC Implementation: Special Education Teacher’s Perspective

Abigail Simon, BS,  Sara Steele, PhD, CCC-SLP, St. Louis University

The current literature demonstrates that educators and service providers know what best practices are in regards to Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC); however these practices are not being implemented in schools. The barriers that are causing this disconnect between best and actual practices are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of special education teachers’ perceptions regarding implementation of AAC in school settings. Qualitative data were collected from special education teachers (n = 5) in Missouri through ethnographic interviews regarding their experiences and perspectives with AAC. A qualitative thematic analysis of the interview responses was performed. Results of this study highlighted that collaboration and SLP expertise can positively or negatively affect AAC implementation. Other themes related to facilitators and barriers for AAC implementation were also identified.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Discuss best practice for AAC implementation in research.
  • Identify current barriers to implementation identified by special education teachers.
  • . Identify current facilitators to implementation identified by special education teachers.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST5 - Speech Performance in Dysarthria: The Impact of Lexical Factors

Morgan Linneweh,  Anna Mae Williams, Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, University of Missouri

Speech stimuli in current dysarthria tests consider some lexical factors (e.g., phonetic balance), but not all the pertinent ones critical for assessment. For example, word frequency is rarely considered, but can have a robust effect on both production and perception of utterances by individuals with dysarthria. This exclusion partly stems from a poor understanding of how various lexical factors influence speech performance. Ultimately, to obtain a reliable index of speech performance to aid in diagnosis, monitoring progression, and documenting treatment outcomes, the influences of these factors must be systematically controlled in test stimuli. As a first step, this study sought to examine how four lexical factors affect speech movement variability and intelligibility in talkers with dysarthria.

Eight participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 14 neurotypical controls produced 10 repetitions of 20 words. Age of acquisition, sonority, word frequency, and phonotactic probability values were determined for each word. Words with the two highest and two lowest values in each lexical category were chosen as target words. Using electromagnetic articulography, tongue movements were recorded, and for each word, the variability of movement patterns was determined using the spatiotemporal index (STI). Intelligibility was calculated as the number of intelligible words/total number of words x 100. Compared to controls, the ALS group was predicted to have higher STI and lower intelligibility for words with high age of acquisition and sonority and words with low frequency and phonotactic probability. Our preliminary results support this hypothesis. The clinical implications will be emphasized during our talk.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Discuss the importance of controlling for lexical factors in test stimuli.
  • Explain how age of acquisition, sonority, word frequency, and phonotactic probability affect speech movement variability and intelligibility.
  • Describe how the perceptual and kinematic results are clinically relevant.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST6 - Awareness and Implementation of Dialogic Reading in Early Education Classrooms

Kellie Helmick, Kaitlyn Johnson, Miranda Scheel, Eastlyn Koons, Amy Teten, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

The purpose of the study was to spread awareness about dialogic reading and determine the frequency of use of dialogic reading in preschool through 2nd grade classrooms. The method of the study involved the construction of a survey measuring teachers’ knowledge of the steps of dialogic reading. The survey also evaluated the change in the participants’ confidence in the implementation of the dialogic reading process after watching an informational video created by the researchers. Data has been received but not yet analyzed and will be presented at the conference.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Recall the four steps in the dialogic reading process.
  • Identify at least one way they can implement the steps of dialogic reading with their students.
  • Describe the importance of spreading awareness of the dialogic reading process.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

ST7 - Benefits of Online Support Groups for PWA

Benjamin Norell, BA,  Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

This session will provide an overview of the benefits of creating and facilitating Online Support Groups for People with Aphasia (PWA).  A review of the current research regarding the efficacy of Online Support Groups for PWA will be summarized. The steps required to create an online support group will be addressed. Best practices for facilitating these types of virtual sessions will be presented.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe benefits of Online Support Groups for PWA.
  • Facilitate a Virtual Session with Best Practices.
  • Create an independent Virtual Support Group for PWA.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST8 - Considerations for Gender-Affirming Voice and Communication Therapy

Quin Quintana, Ilene Elmlinger, AuD, CCC-A, Truman State University

The overall goal of VAC therapy is to help clients adapt their voice and communication patterns in a way that is congruent with their gender identity or gender expression. Access to gender affirming care is one of the most important factors for a transgender individual’s quality of life, but previous studies on the effectiveness of VAC therapy have relied on testimonies from transgender individuals who come from supportive backgrounds and have thus assumed that access to such services are universal to the transgender community as a whole. The goal of this project is to explore the impact of family and community support on an individual’s willingness to pursue gender-affirming VAC therapy. An email, accompanied with information about the study and additional contact information for participating in the study, were sent to organization leaders at Truman State University. In order to qualify to participate in the study, subjects were required to be enrolled as a student at Truman State, be between the ages of 18 and 25, and identify as transgender. Subjects were given an anonymous online questionnaire with inquiries separated into three sections. Overall, responses were varied for Keo-Meiser’s models of support in individuals who indicated that they would be willing to pursue VAC therapy if all physical and financial barriers were removed. Individuals who indicated that they would not be willing to pursue VAC therapy indicated high levels of authentic gender self, high levels of gender distress, varied levels of gender resilience, and low levels of social support.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Identify four models of support as defined by Colt Keo-Meiser’s Gender Affirmative Model.
  • Differentiate between cisgender and transgender identities.
  • Describe at least three potential therapy targets for a client receiving voice and communication therapy.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

ST9 - The Caregiver’s Perspective on School-Based Services

Sarah Queen, BS,  Stephanie Knollhoff, PhD, CCC-SLP,  Tanya Myrick, MS, CCC-SLP,  University of Missouri

Each school year speech-language pathologists provide services to a large number of students between the ages of three and twenty-one years old. A large portion of those students are unable to functionally communicate concerns, wants, or needs. For six to eight hours a day, caregivers put their trust in school professionals to ensure their child will be safe during the school day. Do caregivers feel heard and understood? Do they feel comfortable communicating concerns with their child’s school-based SLP? The purpose of this investigation is to gain more information on the caregiver perspective of speech-language pathology services and needs for school-age children. This study specifically aims to assess the caregiver perspective and comfort level of speech-language pathology services being provided in the school setting. We conducted an electronic survey specifically for caregivers of school-age children. Questions were designed to elicit the caregiver’s perspective on school-based services. Data collection is currently ongoing; however, results will be presented on the comfort level and viewpoint of the caregiver. Results from this study will enhance the understanding of this crucial member of the team and support the development of resources to strengthen relationships.

Learner Outcomes:

  • Describe the importance of the caregiver-SLP relationship.
  • List at least one area that caregivers note as a concern when working with SLPs.
  • Describe the caregivers’ perspective regarding their comfort level with school-based services.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic