Posters

Poster Presentations

Earn up to a maximum 1 hour or 0.1 ASHA CEU. Watch up to 4 posters.

Poster 1 - Support Groups on the QoL of Parents With Premature Infants

Callista Nickelson, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

An extremely premature infant is defined as a child born before 28 weeks gestation. Extremely premature infants often experience prolonged stays in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) as medical professionals provide life-saving and life-sustaining care. Following discharge from a NICU, parents often experience high levels of prolonged stress or emotional trauma. Parental stress can be attributed to reduced cognitive, speech, language and psychosocial development in children. This cross-sectional, qualitative questionnaire examined the impact of support groups on the quality of life of parents following participation in a parent support group. Participants included parents with extremely premature infants who have been discharged from the NICU. Participants completed an individual questionnaire about their personal experiences. Qualitative data was systematically analyzed and categorically organized into themes for analysis. Results from this study may provide insight for future professionals as to how a prolonged NICU stay can impact parents’ quality of life and how to further improve family-centered care practices for parents who may have experienced emotional trauma or prolonged stress following a NICU stay.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

  • Recall the potential impact of a prolonged NICU stay on parents with premature infants.
  • Identify how parents can be supported after experiencing emotional trauma and prolonged stress following a prolonged NICU stay.
  • Recall how emotional trauma and prolonged stress in parents can impact a child’s development.

 

Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

Poster 2 - Overview on Feeding an Infant With a Cleft Palate/em>

Allison Walker, University of Missouri; Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

It is well established that infants with isolated cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, have feeding difficulties that require modifications and/or compensations (Reid et al., 2007). Some infants with cleft lip and/or palate experience only mild difficulties, while other may have more significant feeding difficulties (Masarei et al., 2007). This poster reviews the available evidence and expert opinion to report current feeding guidelines for infants with cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Strategies to facilitate feeding success and optimize growth and development are emphasized.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

  • Describe three feeding difficulties related to cleft palate anatomy
  • List three professionals that assist infants with cleft palate in the feeding process
  • Compare three different compensatory feeding strategies and/or facilitative techniques

 

Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

Poster 3 - A Comparison of NMES Forms and Instruments Available for Swallowing Rehabilitation

Bonnie Slavych, PhD, University of Central Missouri; Emily Rothschild, BS, University of Central Missouri; Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, ACUE, University of Central Missouri

This poster will explain foundational information related to neuromuscular reeducation as well as the state of the research regarding neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and its involvement in swallow rehabilitation. Specific terminology, including waveforms and duty cycles will be explained and related to their impact in neuromuscular reeducation. Also, types of NMES for swallowing rehabilitation will be presented. Instruments currently available for use will be described and compared along with a highlight of their rehabilitative differences.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: Explain what is neuromuscular reeducation.

  • Discuss the state of the research for NMES and rehabilitation of the swallow.
  • Discuss differences among forms of NMES for rehabilitation of the swallow
  • Make an informed selection of a modality for their practice.
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    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 4 - SLPs' Experiences and Perspectives on Interprofessional Education/Interprofessional Collaborative Practice

    Misty Tilmon, EdD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Rachel Martin, BS, Southeast Missouri State University; Morgan Thomas, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Learning from and working with professionals across a variety of disciplines involves elements of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPP). IPE includes learning about the importance of collaboration and how to effectively collaborate with other professionals through educational experiences. Opportunities for education may include college courses, lectures, continuing education units (CEUs), on the job trainings, and other experiences during college and on the job. IPP may include collaborative experiences with other professionals outside of speech-language pathology during college and on the job. This study analyzed speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs’) perspectives and experiences pertaining to IPE/IPP. The purpose was to discover the quantity and type of IPE/IPP that SLPs participated in during college and in their careers to determine SLPs’ perspectives and experiences across work settings. Participants included SLPs with at least a master’s degree who have also obtained their certificate of clinical competence (CCC). The study included a 20-question survey and an optional zoom interview consisting of six open-ended questions that allowed participants to expand upon their perspectives and experiences. This study may add to the current research and increase awareness and use of IPE/IPP. Participants’ responses will assist in exploration of effective IPE/IPP that are implemented in different work settings along with areas of IPE/IPP in which professionals lack understanding.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Differentiate between interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice.
    • Identify the importance of interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice.
    • Distinguish work settings that need increased interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 5 - A Kinematic Study of Tongue Coupling Relations in Dysathria

    Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, University of Missouri; Makenzie Thoenen, University of Missouri;Rylan Batten, BA, University of Missouri

    Typical young adults exhibit relatively independent movement of non-adjacent tongue regions such as the tip and dorsum during speech production. Such independence, indexed by a strong negative correlation of non-adjacent tongue region movements, allows for adequate phonetic distinctiveness during speech production. Therefore, the degree of negative intralingual coupling is an important metric of speech motor performance that is particularly relevant to our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms that underlie reduced speech precision and intelligibility loss in dysarthria. The aim of the current study was to examine if intralingual coupling is altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether intralingual coupling varies with phonetic complexity demands in PD. 3D electromagnetic articulography was used to track tongue tip (TT) and tongue dorsum (TD) movements of 15 people with PD and 15 healthy controls, during 10 target words representing either low or high phonetic complexity levels. Phonetic complexity was calculated using the Kent (1992) framework. Intralingual coupling was estimated from a covariance index comprising the average pairwise correlation and standard deviations of TT and TD movements for each word. Preliminary results from 16 participants show highly coupled intralingual movements for high complexity words in controls. By contrast, in PD, regardless of phonetic complexity, weak intralingual coupling was observed, potentially driven by restricted movement of one or both tongue regions. The study findings will help advance our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms contributing to speech imprecision in PD and will allow us to meet translational needs aimed at developing more sensitive speech assessments for dysarthria.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define intralingual coupling and summarize how intralingual coupling is affected in persons with PD.
    • Discuss the effects of phonetic complexity on intralingual coupling in PD.
    • Understand the contributions of weak intralingual coupling to articulatory imprecision observed clinically in patients with PD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 6 - A Comptarative Study of Articulatory Performance Among Progressive Dysarthrias

    Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, University of Missouri; Madalyn Michael, University of Missouri; Alyssa Buie, University of Missouri; Emma Travis, University of Missouri

    Disease-related changes in articulation are known to contribute significantly to the progressive loss of speech intelligibility in talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although prior studies have primarily investigated articulatory performance in these conditions separately, they support the notion that there may be similar as well as disease-specific mechanisms that contribute to speech loss in these progressive dysarthrias. Further, existing studies suggest that articulatory performance may vary depending on the speech stimuli used. Yet, comparative studies that have systematically investigated articulatory motor performance as a function of stimulus complexity in ALS and PD are lacking. Therefore, the current study sought to compare tongue motor performance in ALS and PD as a function of stimulus complexity at the word level. 3D tongue (tip and dorsum) movement data were obtained from 15 healthy controls and 15 talkers each with PD and ALS for 10 target words that were categorized as either high or low complexity, based on the framework by Kent (1992). Tongue speed and range of motion (ROM) were averaged across 5-10 repetitions of each word, to determine between-group differences in tongue motor performance. Compared to controls, the PD group showed significant reductions in tongue tip ROM only for high complexity words. Although the ALS data are still being analyzed, based on previous studies, significant decreases in movement extent and speed are expected for this group relative to controls even for relatively simple utterances. Clinical and theoretical implications of the findings will be discussed during the presentation.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Differentiate between articulatory changes observed in dysarthria due to ALS and PD.
    • Describe one method for determining phonetic complexity.
    • Summarize how phonetic complexity affects tongue motor performance in individuals with ALS and PD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 7 - Individuals With Acquired Brain Injury: Outdoors Time and Cognitive Rehabilitation

    Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Haileigh Armbrust, BS, Fontbonne University

    This poster session will provide an overview of acquired brain injury and its impact on cognitive functioning. The relationship between quality of life measures and rehabilitation outcomes for acquired brain injury patients will be discussed. The available treatment methods for cognitive disorders will be summarized. The efficacy of spending time outdoors to improve cognitive performance will also be reviewed as a potential treatment method for individuals with acquired brain injury.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Explain the impact of acquired brain injury on cognitive performance.
    • Explore the relationship between quality of life measures and rehabilitation outcomes.
    • Describe the benefits of spending time outdoors and its impact on cognitive performance among persons with brain injury.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 8 - Therapy Techniques for Speech Sound Disorders Associated With Repaired Cleft Palate

    Basmah Alshatti, BA, University of Missouri; Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

    ASHA Special Interest Group 5, Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, Continuing Education Committee offers this poster as a practical guide for therapeutic management of school-aged children with speech disorders associated with repaired cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD).
    Appropriate referral to a craniofacial team and evidence-based treatment techniques are emphasized.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe three general therapy guidelines for children with cleft palate speech or VPD.
    • Identify and describe common compensatory articulation errors associated with cleft palate speech or VPD.
    • Describe three specific speech therapy techniques to achieve correct articulatory placement.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 9 - Multicultural and Multidisciplinary Needs of SLPs on Cleft Lip and Palate Teams

    Saneta Thurmon, CCC-A/SLP, St. Louis University; Allyson Burke, St. Louis University

    Interprofessional care is crucial for patients with severe medical conditions, specifically craniofacial anomalies. Cleft lip and cleft palate are common birth defects, but treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to increase the chance of a successful outcome. Texts pertaining to this suggest a central focus on enhancing the quality of life not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families and especially the mothers. The teamwork approach to treating patients with cleft lip and cleft palate has been widely accepted in most developed regions of the world as the standard for care. About 40% of children born with cleft lip and palate will develop a communication disorder, and the majority of these patients will be treated before entering elementary school. School-based SLPs will typically see these patients when they enter grade school, and these SLPs do not have as much exposure to craniofacial anomalies as medical SLPs do. This research paper aims to investigate the different needs a SLP has when serving on cleft lip and palate teams. The SLP must collaborate on multidisciplinary teams and take supplemental measures when working with culturally and linguistically diverse patients to ensure that they are advocating for an elevated QOL for their patients.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach for treating patients with cleft lip and palate.
    • Identify measures that an SLP should take when working with patients and families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
    • Identify how SLPs advocate for an elevated quality of life for their patients.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | Multicultural

    Poster 10 - Expiratory and Inspiratory Muscle Strength Training and the Speech-Language Pathologist

    Bonnie Slavych, PhD, University of Central Missouri; Derek Nugent, University of Central Missouri

    Muscle strength training involves improving the efficient performance of muscular tissue. Two types of muscle strength training that speech-language pathologists employ are expiratory muscle strength training and inspiratory muscle strength training. These types of strength training are of fundamental importance as breathing is foundational to voice and swallowing. Evidence-based clinical tools are available for use by speech-language pathologists to habilitate or rehabilitate respiratory musculature. However, to select the appropriate device, speech-language pathologists must know which muscle groups to target. This poster session will (1) distinguish between expiratory muscle strength training and inspiratory muscle strength training, (2) delineate populations that might benefit from each type, and (3) describe tools that may be used for habilitating or rehabilitating the respiratory musculature.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Discuss the role of the SLP in expiratory and inspiratory muscle strength training.
    • Distinguish between expiratory and inspiratory muscle strength training.
    • Explain when to implement each type of strength training.
    • Name some tools that can be used to target respiratory muscle groups.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 11 - Comparison of Fluent Stuttering, Fluency Shaping, and a Combined Approach

    Renee Schuster, EdD; Emily Despain, BA; Elizabeth Kolell, BA; Jasmina Sinanovic, BA; Faheeda Khan, BA

    From examining the three components of stuttering, two major treatment techniques have emerged; Fluent Stuttering and Fluency Shaping. Although much debate exists on which technique is preferred, recently a combined approach of the two techniques has been used. Due to the lack of consensus on the etiology of stuttering, which led to a divide in treatment approaches, evidence-based research is limited for speech-language pathologists who are providing treatment to individuals who stutter. Since controversy between approaches continues, this research aims to determine if there is any evidence-based support to Fluent Stuttering, Fluency Shaping or a combined approach.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Distinguish between the types of stuttering treatment approaches.
    • Identify Fluent Stuttering, Fluency Shaping, and a combined approach.
    • Identify a need for more research regarding fluency treatment.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 12 - DIR/Floortime Used in Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Renee Schuster, EdD, CCC-SLP; Lindsay Grzymski, BS; Elizabeth Hercules, BA; Taylor Schweitzer, BA; Mackenzie Steiner, BS

    This systematic review of literature explored if DIR/Floortime should be considered an effective method of treating children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. “DIR [developmental, individual-difference, relationship based] is a framework developed by Greenspan (1990) that identifies six developmental milestones for healthy emotional and intellectual growth” (Roth & Worthington, 2020). Floortime is the technique used to implement the model of DIR intervention as a framework used to form interactions and relationships that are so important in any child’s life. Twelve articles were analyzed that included children diagnosed with ASD and DIR/Floortime as a method of intervention. The combined results of these studies support DIR/Floortime as an effective treatment approach for children who have received a diagnosis of ASD, though more research should be conducted on the subject.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the treatment methods of DIR/Floortime.
    • Determine if DIR/Floortime is an effective intervention method for children diagnosed with ASD.
    • Differentiate DIR/Floortime and other intervention methods for children diagnosed with ASD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 13 - Play Informs Autism Diagnosis in at Risk Toddlers

    Barbara Braddock, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Elena Menzel, MS, Fontbonne University; Brianna Britton, MS, Fontbonne University

    This session will review play tasks structured on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), Toddler Module (age range 12 to 30 months) (Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012). Types of play will be identified using a framework for observing children’s developmental play patterns (symbolic dimensions) in Integrated Play Groups Play Scale (Wolfberg 2003). Red flags or early concern for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will be discussed based on play behaviors.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe play tasks structured on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), Toddler Module.
    • Identify types of play examined on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), Toddler Module.
    • List play behaviors that may signal early concern for Spectrum Disorder.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 14 - Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions to Response-To-Intervention

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Lyndi Jones, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Missouri school-based speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs) perceptions of Response to Intervention (RTI). A survey was generated to evaluate the following research questions: 1.) How confident are SLPs in implementing RTI? 2.) Does the amount of knowledge of RTI and previous experiences play a role in SLPs’ perceptions on RTI? 3.) Is it important to attend continuing education courses prior to implementing RTI in the school setting? 4.) Will children with language impairments (LI) see significant improvements with RTI? The survey was generated through Qualtrics survey platform and 23 school-based SLPs in Missouri served as participants. Participants in the survey revealed positive perceptions of RTI and the significant improvements it has made in children with LIs. The results also indicated that RTI training prior to RTI implementation yielded positive therapy outcomes. Given the small sample size, the study presents with limited generalizability; however, a larger sample of SLPs may be recruited for future studies.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe various perceptions/tenets of RTI in school settings.
    • Identify the effects of RTI on the performance of students with language impairments.
    • Discuss the importance of prior training or continuing education before implementing RTI.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 15- Perception of Voice Outcomes of the SPEAK OUT! Voice Program in Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Sarah Totterer, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects dopamine-producing neurons in the area of the brain known as the substantia nigra. Some individuals with PD acquire hypokinetic dysarthria which is characterized by alterations in prosody, articulation, phonation, and speech breathing. These alterations affect the perception of voice in individuals with PD and negatively impact their quality of life. However, there are treatment options that can be utilized that can improve the individual’s quality of life. The SPEAK OUT! ® Program is a voice program for individuals with PD that focuses on increasing the volume of vocal output by emphasizing speaking “with intent”. Given the lack of studies on perceived voice outcomes after the SPEAK OUT! training, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of The SPEAK OUT! ® Voice Program on voice outcomes in individuals with Parkinson’s disease after completing the program. The participants completed a 10-item survey based on Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). The ten items covered the areas of physical aspects of voice, functional aspects of voice, and how voice affects emotions. Results and clinical implications will be discussed in light of current literature. Future studies may be designed to investigate perceptions of voice outcomes, voice maintenance, and quality of life using semi-structured interviews.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe the benefits of SPEAK OUT! training on voice and speech in individuals with Parkinson’s disease based on published studies.
    • Identify the impact of SPEAK OUT! training on voice outcomes based on the survey results.
    • Identify the impact of SPEAK OUT! training on quality of life based on the survey results.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 16 - Concussions and Return to Learn (RTL) Protocols for Pediatric Population

    Carmen Russell, PhD, Fontbonne University; Alexandria Barker, BA, Fontbonne University

    There is a discrepancy between Return to Play (RTP) protocols and Return to Learn (RTL) protocols implemented across the United States. This poster will provide an overview of the statistics of pediatric concussions in the United States. There will be a summary of the current literature containing various policies, programs, and guidelines for students returning to the classroom after receiving a concussion. The implementation, amount, and variability of the RTL protocols available within the United States will also be summarized. These protocols, or lack thereof, may have an effect on student academic performance.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Recall the current statistics of pediatric concussions
    • Differentiate between the various RTL protocols available
    • Identify the current themes and gaps within the present literature regarding RTL protocols

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | Multi-Interest

    Poster 17 - Theory of Mind and its Effects on Individuals With ASD

    Aaron Doubet, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Lydia Griffith, BS, Fontbonne University; Kate Haberberger, BS, Fontbonne University

    This poster session will overview the definition, development, and effects of the theory of mind (ToM) in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Kimhi et al., 2014). What the theory of mind is and how it is used in social pragmatics will be explained (Andrés-Roqueta & Katsos, 2020). The development of theory of mind in individuals with ASD will be summarized. The effects of the deficits of theory of mind on social pragmatics in individuals with ASD will also be reviewed (Peterson et al., 2008).

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define and explain what the theory of mind is.
    • Distinguish the difference between what theory of mind development looks like in normal developing individuals and individuals with ASD.
    • Identify how deficits in theory of mind affect the social pragmatics of individuals with ASD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 18 - Caregiver Perceptions of Outcomes of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy: A Qualitative Study

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Mikayla Patterson, BS, Southeast Missouri State University; Kelcie Ussery, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Dementia is a degenerative condition characterized by decline in language, memory, problem-solving, and thinking. The most common type of dementia is due to Alzheimer’s disease which impacts 5.8 million Americans (Alzheimer’s Association, 2020). Given the need for cost-effective and nonpharmacological approaches for management of dementia, Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) was determined to improve cognitive functioning, social interactions, and overall quality of life in individuals with dementia (Spector, Orrell, & Woods, 2010). Caregivers play a crucial role in providing care to individuals with dementia who present with memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning (Stewart et al., 2017). Since caregivers are expected to be part of CST for follow-up activities of daily living at home, they can provide feedback and share their perspectives regarding the benefits of CST. Since past studies provide limited data about caregivers’ perceptions of CST, the purpose of the current study was to explore caregivers’ perceptions of the effects of CST on social skills, communication skills, completion of activities of daily living, and psychological status of individuals with dementia. An interview consisting of 18 questions was used to collect data from caregivers in two Missouri hospitals that conduct CST programs. Data were analyzed based on deductive and inductive coding schemes to understand how caregivers perceive the effects of CST on their loved ones. Results and clinical implications pertaining to caregiver burden and quality of life will be discussed. Given the limitation of a small sample of participants in the current study, future research should include a larger sample size to enhance generalizability of findings. Also, perceptions of both the caregivers and CST participants could be included in the data for comparison of quality of life in both the groups.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe the basic principles and tenets of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST).
    • Describe caregivers’ perceptions of CST outcomes on social and communication skills.
    • Describe caregivers’ perceptions of CST outcomes on activities of daily living and psychological status.
    • Identify specific aspects of caregivers’ perception of burden of dementia care

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 19 - Outcomes & Design of Garden-Based Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Amanda Eaton, PhD, Fontbonne University; Becca Howard, BA, Fontbonne University

    The aims of this session are to detail the benefits of a nature-based, garden therapy group for stroke survivors with aphasia and provide clinics with resources to implement garden-based therapy in conjunction with traditional speech-language therapy in long-term stroke rehabilitation. Therapeutic benefits of group gardening in clinical populations identified in previous literature will be reviewed. Rehabilitative outcomes for participants of the 6 week, garden therapy group at Fontbonne University will be discussed in detail along with the structure and activities implemented. Garden-based therapy is evidenced to promote self identity, and thus, can lead to greater therapeutic and rehabilitative gains for stroke survivors. This poster session will detail the benefits of this occupation based therapy and how clinics can implement nature-based garden therapy groups to promote clinical and personal goals for stroke survivors.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the benefits of occupation based, group gardening therapy in conjunction with traditional speech language therapy approaches for post stroke populations.
    • Design and implement a garden therapy program for clinical populations using resources provided.
    • Expand clinical paradigm to include non-traditional therapy approaches.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 20 - Exercise Induced Laryngeal Obstruction

    Bonnie Slavych, PhD, University of Central Missouri; Maren Tuttle, BS, University of Central Missouri

    Previously referred to as vocal cord dysfunction and paradoxical vocal fold motion, exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) refers to difficulty with inspiration during exercise. Specifically, the glottal area narrows while the arytenoid cartilages fold over the glottis. Although speech-language pathologists provide therapy for individuals diagnosed with EILO, this disorder is not well known. This presentation will describe EILO, explain how its diagnosed, and review management techniques.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define exercise induced laryngeal obstruction
    • Explain diagnostic criteria for exercise induced laryngeal obstruction
    • Discuss management techniques for individuals diagnosed with exercise induced laryngeal obstruction

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 21 - Perceptions of Therapy Outcomes of Speech-Language Pathologists in a Telepractice Service Delivery Model

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Emma Mueller, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Telepractice, based on telecommunication technology, offers an invaluable service delivery option for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) by connecting clinicians to clients at a distance. Though telepractice can be implemented to offer a wide variety of services such as, consultation, assessment, and intervention in health care and school settings , limited research is available on the perceptions of SLPs regarding outcomes of telepractice given various barriers such as nontraditional or virtual interactive experiences, lack of technical knowledge of SLPs, or data storage and sharing. The purpose of this survey study was to investigate the perceptions of the therapy outcomes of SLPs who provide assessment and/or treatment via telepractice. Participants in this study were individuals who obtained a master’s degree in speech-language pathology or communication disorders and were recruited via the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s (ASHA) Special Interest Group (SIG) 18 on telepractice along with four ASHA Community Groups. The following questions were addressed in the study: 1. What are the main barriers perceived by SLPs who provide telepractice? 2. What benefits are experienced by clients who participate in telepractice? 3. What aspects of telepractice have speech-language pathologists identified initially and currently as areas of difficulty and mastery? 4. How do SLPs measure success in the delivery of telepractice? A 25-item questionnaire was administered via a Qualtrics® link to evaluate the perceptions of 57 SLPs regarding therapy outcomes. Results indicated that SLPs preferred telepractice option to traditional, face-to-face encounters. Barriers to telepractice were identified as lack of knowledge of SLPs and limited access to technology including lack of educational or therapy resources. The important benefits of telepractice were identified to be greater participation by clients and convenience of providing services from remote locations. Limitations of the study include respondent bias and accessibility issues due to questionnaire format. Future research is needed to evaluate perceptions reported by SLPs to allow for improved clinical outcomes for those who use telepractice.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the barriers and benefits perceived by speech-language pathologists associated with implementation of telepractice as a service delivery model.
    • Recall areas of difficulty and mastery by speech-language pathologists who have implemented telepractice as a service delivery model.
    • Distinguish measures of success as reported by speech-language pathologists who have conducted telepractice as a service delivery model.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 22 - Trauma Informed Practices: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    Aaron Doubet, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; RuthAnn Barns, BS, Fontbonne University; Laura Ousley, BA, Fontbonne University

    This poster session will provide an overview of how school-based speech-language pathologists can increase Trauma Informed Practices (TIP) by implementing mindfulness into their scope of practice. The basic science of how our brains function under stress will be discussed. The recent trends of increasing TIP within the school system to increase student involvement and decrease unnecessary punishment will be summarized. The efficacy of using mindfulness as a form of increasing TIP within the treatment of speech and language disorders will also be reviewed.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Explain the basic science of the neurological impact of stress/trauma.
    • Assess the use of mindfulness as it relates to cognition.
    • Assess various available treatment methods for utilizing mindfulness and Trauma Informed Practices within the school environment.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 23 - Correlation Between Dysphagia With a Functional Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Caiti Catania, BS, Maryville University; Allison Mesler, BS, Maryville University; Lucy Lovelace, BS, Maryville University; Courtney Neal, BS, Maryville University

    Dysphagia is the abnormal execution of the three stages of swallowing: oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal. Dysphagia occurs at all stages; it further is diagnosed through the signs and symptoms presented. The disruption in neuronal control can contribute to any of the following symptoms; difficulty chewing food, preparing the bolus, initiating swallowing, propelling the bolus through the pharynx, or passing the food through the esophagus. The significance of recognizing these early signs should not go unmentioned. If detected early, appropriate referrals to a speech-language pathologist for risk management around mealtime can significantly impact the client’s overall quality of life. A link exists between neurodegenerative diseases and dysphagia – such as dementia, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). To explore this topic further, research will answer the question of, what is the correlation between dysphagia with a functional decline in neurodegenerative diseases.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Explain the impact of dysphagia
    • Describe the linkage of neurodegenerative diseases and dysphagia
    • Identify the signs and symptoms of dysphagia

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 24 - Perceived Patient-Related Outcomes of Deep Brain Stimulation in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Jennifer Revell, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an elective as well as an effective treatment for mitigating symptoms of several movement disorders, such as tremors, dystonia, dyskinesia, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by damage in the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. DBS treatment involves sending of electrical impulses to the brain through a neurostimulator for allowing individuals with PD to maintain their activities of daily living. Though several studies have indicated patient satisfaction with DBS, the effects of DBS on quality of life (QOL) remains inconclusive. The perception of quality of life is related to physical health, social engagement, psychological status, and environment. The aim of this survey study was to explore perceptions of individuals with PD regarding their quality of life after receiving DBS surgery. The following research questions were formulated: (1) What are the perceptions regarding changes in speech intelligibility status in post DBS patients with Parkinson’s disease? (2) What are the perceptions regarding changes in physical health (e.g., walking, sleeping, activities of daily living) status in post DBS patients with Parkinson’s disease? (3) What are the perceptions regarding changes in social communication status in post DBS patients with Parkinson’s disease? (4) What are the perceptions regarding changes in psychological status (e.g., emotional control, depression, memory) in post DBS patients with Parkinson’s disease? The study included 20 individuals with idiopathic PD and all of them had received DBS within the past five years. Both male and female participants aged between 45-70 years responded to the survey. Also, the participants were required to have no comorbidities, such as dementia, language impairments, other neurodegenerative conditions except for PD. The survey, created by Qualtrics, consisted of 13 questions addressing speech (e.g., voice quality, voice loudness, articulation), physical health conditions (e.g., daily energy, fatigue, work capacity, activities of daily living), social communication (e.g., participating in conversation, social activities), and psychological status (personal satisfaction, memory, depression). Results will be discussed along with the clinical significance of this study. This study is expected to benefit individuals with PD and their caregivers including other stakeholders in health care. With several established therapeutic efficiencies (e.g., depression, movements, tone, balance) after DBS, patient perceptions of outcomes can potentially inform medical professionals regarding specific neural sites for electrode placement. Future studies can include in-depth semi-structured interviews to study patient perceptions of DBS outcomes.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe why deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment is an elective treatment for individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
    • Identify specific outcomes of DBS treatment regarding speech intelligibility and social communication in individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
    • Identify specific outcomes of DBS treatment regarding psychological health and physical health along with overall quality of life in individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 25 - Measurements Used by Speech-Language Pathologist When Tracking Progress in the use of Social Stories

    Samantha Washington, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University; Allison Pankau, BS, Southern Illinois University of Edwardsville; Samantha Washington, EdD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

    Social Stories, developed by Carol Gray in the 1990s, is an intervention used to teach individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a variety of social skills. Social Stories are a method that supports the exchange of social information between an individual with ASD and other individuals. In this study, an online survey was administered to speech-language pathologists (SLP) all over the United States about what methods they use to measure Social Stories’ outcomes. The SLPs were also asked if they used Social Stories in conjunction with any other interventions. The survey consisted of multiple-choice options or an “other” option to type in their answer. This information is critical to gather because it will help other SLPs become aware of other measurements they can use. It is essential to be effective and efficient when providing intervention to individuals, and how outcomes are measured is how an intervention is determined to be effective and efficient.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Distinguish the most popular method in data collection for Social Story intervention
    • Identify other ways to measure outcomes of Social Story intervention.
    • Differentiate between measurements used when collecting data from Social Story intervention.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 26 - Communication Strategies' Effect on Caregivers of Persons With Parkinson's Disease

    Hannah Travis, BS, Southeast Missouri State University; Misty Tilmon, EdD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

    The purpose of this study was to determine if caregivers of Persons with Parkinson’s (PWP) would benefit from more education about communication strategies, as determined by the effectiveness of the current strategies being used. PWP often demonstrate less concise and organized conversation and difficulty with comprehension, compared to non-disordered individuals (Wolff & Benge, 2019). These difficulties create challenges when interacting in everyday settings. A communication breakdown occurs when a message is not properly received, interrupting the flow of the interaction. A repair must be initiated for a mutual understanding to be reached and is most frequently accomplished by the caregiver. The strategies a caregiver currently uses may be effective but not efficient or only effective temporarily, as the function of PWP will decrease. The caregiver may be unaware of other strategies to increase the effectiveness of communication, which would increase their Quality of Life (QoL). This study aimed to provide professionals with information about the possible need to educate caregivers of PWP about effective communication strategies to overall improve QoL. Researchers contacted Parkinson’s support groups in the state of Missouri to recruit caregivers. Caregivers completed a survey that consisted of a QoL questionnaire (AC-QoL) and questions about their experiences as a caregiver in relation to communication. Participants indicated at the end of the survey if they were interested in completing an interview with the researcher to discuss the survey questions in greater depth. Responses were analyzed to determine the relationship between QoL and communication strategies used.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define communication breakdown and communication repair.
    • Identify at least two examples of communication strategies used by caregivers that aid in improved communication.
    • List at least two examples of why caregivers of individuals with Parkinson’s disease would benefit from more education about effective communication strategies.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 27 - Musical Dichotic Listening Tasks In Young Listeners

    Susan Fulton, CCC-A, Southeast Missouri State University; Cassandra Amberger, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Dichotic listening tasks help identify problems managing competing auditory stimuli, temporal processing, higher function auditory tasks, and may help identify neural asymmetry. Few non-linguistically based dichotic listening tasks are available, although both the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and the American Academy of Audiology (AAA) recommend inclusion of non-verbal stimuli in an auditory processing test battery. Unique, non-linguistic based tasks for use in diagnosing auditory processing disorders are needed, specifically to assess binaural listening and the processing of pitch contours. The purpose of the study is to investigate the ability of young listeners to identify and distinguish instrumental children’s songs presented dichotically. Participants will be children between the ages of 6-12 meeting the following inclusion criteria: native English speaker, demonstrate bilateral normal hearing, no history of hearing assistive devices, no history of a severe speech or language delay, and no history of a neurological disorder diagnosis. Participants will identify short piano melodies (e.g., Mary Had a Little Lamb and Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star) recorded digitally and presented dichotically at a comfortable listening level via headphones. Percent correct scores and ear-based errors will be recorded. Generation of a new, unique, dichotic listening task using melodic tunes may be possible. Data may also provide information regarding hearing dominance in young children. Results will be available and presented during MSHA’ s conference in April 2021.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify short piano melodies presented dichotically with minimal to no difficulty
    • Distinguish these melodies from one another when presented dichotically
    • Present new information regarding hearing dominance in young listeners based on percent correct scores and ear-based errors recorded from data

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | Audiology

    Poster 28 - Executive Function, Social Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Misty Tilmon, EdD, Southeast Missouri State University; Ashton Eastin, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), and social impairment, using the Autism Social Skills Profile (ASSP), in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Pairs of parents and language arts teachers of adolescents with ASD participated in the study. Each participant completed the BRIEF, ASSP, and an interview with the principal investigator. The research questions are as follows: Is there a perceived relationship between executive function and social impairment in adolescents with ASD? What is the perceived relationship between dysexecutive function and social impairment? Are there specific domains of executive function that are related to social impairments as perceived by parents and teachers in individuals with ASD? What is the relationship between functional social impairments as perceived by parents compared to the perceptions of language arts teachers?
    Findings will be reported.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the subcategories of executive function.
    • Identify key pragmatic deficits observed in individuals with Autism spectrum disorder.
    • Identify potential relationship(s) between executive function and social impairment as perceived by parents and language arts teachers of adolescents with ASD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 29 - Telepractice: Perceptions of Clients and Clinicians

    Renee Schuster, CCC-SLP, Maryville University; Morgan Gabriele, Maryville University; Kelsey Christman, Maryville University

    Telepractice/teletherapy is a new, frequently used form of therapy that allows clinicians to perform various therapies to clients. Due to the current Pandemic, professionals are moving to virtual therapy formats to help reduce client and clinician exposure. At Maryville University Speech and Language Clinic, telepractice/teletherapy is just recently being utilized in clinical settings for the first time for some; bringing to the surface many unknowns. The purpose of this study is to ensure clients’ speech and language therapy goals are still being met at the end of their semester treatment session. The researchers aim are to gather data regarding the client’s therapy progress, the clinician’s expectations, and overall virtual experience for everyone. The researchers also aim to gain opinions on each of the formats (face-to-face and telepractice/teletherapy) and the benefits and drawbacks of each.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify a preferred therapy format
    • Distinguish between success rates of each therapy format
    • Identify aspects of improvement

     

    Level of Learning: Advanced | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 30 - Conversational Therapy Approach for Persons With Aphasia: A Systematic Review

    Renee Schuster, EdD, Maryville University; Anne Backs, BS, Maryville University; Aurora Nunley, BS, Maryville University

    Graduate student researchers investigated the effectiveness of the conversational therapy approach for people with aphasia. Specifically, researchers hoped to gain more information surrounding the question, “What is the evidence base regarding conversational treatment approaches for aphasia?”. Since the conversational therapy approach has recently become a target for intervention studies relating to people with aphasia, researchers reviewed twenty-two evidence-based research articles and completed a systematic review. Researchers determined common and less common themes among the evidence-based research articles showing the positive outcomes of the conversational therapy approach. While there is some research behind the effectiveness of the conversational therapy approach, more research needs to emerge showing the benefits of conversational strategies for people with aphasia.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Present the evidence base regarding the conversational therapy approaches for aphasia.
    • Identify the effectiveness of current conversational therapy approaches to guide treatment in a variety of clinical settings for aphasia.
    • Distinguish the common and less common themes presented by the researchers on the conversational therapy approach.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 31 - Non-Traditional Education/Schooling and Its Effects on Typical Language Development

    Lauren Wright-Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Abigail Leanhart, BS, Fontbonne University; Kelsey Randle, BS, Fontbonne University; Morgan Patterson, BS, Fontbonne University

    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, many schools have transitioned to virtual learning in an attempt to combat social distancing while still providing academics to their students. The transition to virtual learning also led to options for non-traditional methods of intervention to be provided to clients, the most popular being teletherapy. Children with language disorders require therapy services for many reasons. In response, they would receive language and pragmatic therapy services via teletherapy; however, these services limit the child’s opportunities to experience real-life situations and communicate with peers. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, these children are exposed to social isolation and a new way of learning. This presentation will examine the research surrounding social isolation and non-traditional intervention and the impact it has on a child’s typical language and social development.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the adverse effects social isolation and non-traditional intervention have on typical language development.
    • Identify the adverse effects social isolation and non-traditional intervention have on typical social development.
    • Differentiate between typical and atypical language development and social development.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 32 - A Systematic Review: Evaluating Early Intervention in Children With Autism

    Ann Funk, BS, Maryville University; Morgan Mell, BS, Maryville University; Lara Menke, BA, Maryville University; Claire Neville, BS, Maryville University

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate prior studies of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who received early intervention as a treatment approach versus children who did not receive early intervention to determine if early intervention is a tool that should be considered when suspecting a language impairment or delay. The content of the articles included children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, early intervention, language development, typically developed children. The critical intervention implementation components that contribute to positive outcomes from early intervention are the agent of implementation, duration, dosage, and what the treatment was targeting: receptive, expressive, or social abilities. These components play pertinent roles in the intervention outcomes and effects on the child as per the findings in the articles found.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify various intervention programs to promote early language development in children with Autism.
    • Determine individuals most beneficial to administering early intervention programs.
    • Recall overall benefits of early intervention in children with Autism.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 33 - Dialogic Reading Effects on Early Literacy Skills in Preschool Students

    Stephanie Becker, PhD, Rockhurst University; Makenzie Anderson, BS, Rockhurst University; Katelyn Eby, BS, Rockhurst University; Hailey Sawyer, BS, Rockhurst University; Molly Winter, BA, Rockhurst University

    Much of dialogic reading research evaluates literacy skills in children from middle to upper-income families. Children from lower-income families are at higher risk for early literacy skill deficits. As a group, they often have limited access to books, less one-on-one reading, and family involvement. The purpose of this systematic review is to address the following question: How does implementing dialogic reading with low-income students affect their literacy development? Three electronic databases were searched for articles published between 1990 and 2020. Six peer-reviewed research studies met the criteria for this systematic review. Three studies were randomized control trials (Arnold, Lonigan, Whitehurst, & Epstein, 1994; Lonigan, Purpura, Wilson, Walker, & Clancy-Menchetti, 2013; Whitehurst, Arnold, Epstein, Angell, Smith, & Fischel, 1994) and three were non-randomized control trials (Fitzgerald, Robillard, & O’Grady, 2018; Troseth, Strouse, Flores, Stuckelman, Russo, & Johnson, 2019; Zevenbergen, Worth, Dretto & Travers, 2018). Positive changes in student emergent literacy skills were maintained for all studies addressing language improvement associated with dialogic reading implementation in preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Positive outcomes were seen for all variations of the dialogic reading program including different placements of implementation and different caregivers implementing the program. Literacy improvements were found in the length of time children spent attending to books, letter knowledge, oral comprehension and vocabulary, and reading frequency. Conclusions:  Dialogic reading interventions were effective in improving emergent literacy skills in preschoolers from low-income households regardless of the placement of implementation or person implementing the intervention These findings support the recommendation of starting dialogic reading strategies during the preschool years.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define dialogic reading and explain how it is implemented.
    • Determine the effectiveness of dialogic reading intervention based on the different placements of implementation.
    • Determine the effectiveness of dialogic reading intervention based on the different lengths of program.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 34 - SLPs’ Perspectives on the Vocabulary Gap: An Interview Analysis

    Sara Steele, CCC-SLP, St. Louis University; Ashley McDermott, BS, St. Louis University

    This study aims to discuss the effects of poverty on language and vocabulary development, and how findings between these two topics has amplified deficit discourse, such as the “30 million word gap.” Speech-language pathologists (n=6) who work in St. Louis County schools, completed a virtual interview that contained open-ended, ethnographic questions. A qualitative analysis of their responses was coded and analyzed. Next, the interview findings were compared to the literature on vocabulary deficits in low-income children. Subtopics such as biased assessment tools, poverty statistics within St. Louis, and deficit discourse implications for education were also explored. Results will allow for a better understanding of how SLP’s perceive the vocabulary breadth of low-income children, and how these perceptions reflect in assessment and practice.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Discuss the developmental effects of poverty, specifically language and vocabulary development.
    • Describe various criticisms of the 1995 Hart and Risley vocabulary study.
    • Identify examples of deficit discourse and linguistically biased assessment tools.
    • Describe the various opinions of SLPs regarding the vocabulary gap, and how these perspectives influence SLP’s individual practice.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | Multicultural

    Poster 35 - Increasing Functional Communication Through Direct Teaching of Core Words

    Hannah Maliszewski, BS, Fontbonne University; Kristin Willenbrock, BS, Fontbonne University

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether implementing a core word curriculum for children in pre-K through 5th grade who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) would increase spontaneous use of core words, as opposed to children who did not receive a consistent core word curriculum at school. The idea for this study stemmed from lack of research and consistency in teaching AAC users to effectively use core words.The research sample consisted of two groups of students from elementary schools in the St. Louis metropolitan region. The first group of students were taught two core words each week, and were given time to practice during language therapy. The second group of students did not receive weekly core word instruction. Instead, they received core word instruction as needed at the discretion of the speech language pathologist. Objective and subjective data were collected through data sheets by graduate students, speech language pathologists, paraprofessionals, and essential skills teachers. Limitations of this study include small sample size, inconsistent data due to student and staff quarantines, and the short amount of time allotted for the study. Overall, students who received consistent core word instruction were more likely to use core words spontaneously. However, core word curriculum in pre-K through 5th grade AAC users must be studied further to substantiate the results of this study.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify ways to implement core words into school curriculum and lessons.
    • Perform consistent modeling based on core word curriculum.
    • Explain why implementing core words into school-based curriculum can increase practice and production of core words.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 36 - Missouri’s Revised Language Impairment Eligibility Criteria: Assessment and Cultural Bias

    Sara Steele, CCC-SLP, St. Louis University; Olivia Poholik, St. Louis University

    In August of 2020, Missouri’s eligibility criteria for language impairment was revised, resulting in significant changes to SLPs’ assessment protocols. The purpose of this study was to identify how the revised criteria are being implemented and how cultural bias in standardized testing is being addressed. Individualized feedback from SLPs in public school districts was gathered through interviews using open-ended questions based on SLPs’ perspectives of the revised criteria, how ASHA’s evidence-based practice guidelines are being included, and how cultural bias may influence assessment and eligibility decisions. A qualitative analysis of open-ended question answers was performed. Results of this study can inform SLPs’ navigation of the differences between state requirements and ASHA guidelines.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Discuss the different terminology for language impairment.
    • Describe Missouri’s eligibility criteria changes.
    • Identify school-based SLPs’ perspectives on the revised criteria.
    • Discuss how assessment procedures can reflect cultural bias.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 37 - Home Literacy Environments Within Low-Socioeconomic Households: A Qualitative Study

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, Southeast Missouri State University; Rachel Pullum, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    A child’s first experience with books or reading typically comes from within the home with a parent. Home literacy environments (HLE) are defined as the interactions between parents and children concerning language and literacy development and the availability of literacy materials in the home (Zwass, 2018). Home literacy environments have been shown to be a reliable predictor of student achievement in literacy and an effective area for intervention. Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, and compute using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts (UNESCO, 2020). Contrary to what many believe, preparation for literacy begins prior to beginning school. It is a very complex process that begins at birth and continues to build on experiences that occur from infancy to early childhood. According to research, the ratio of books to children is one book for every 300 children in low-socioeconomic status communities (Children’s Book Bank, 2006). Given the limited research on HLE in lower socioeconomic families, the purpose of the current study was to explore the nature of reading materials used by parents of preschool children and children’s access to age-appropriate books and games at home. Qualitative data will be collected from low-socioeconomic status households through parent interviews. A six-item open-ended questionnaire was used to collect interview data from 10 parents of preschool children attending Head Start. Data were subjected to conceptual/thematic analysis and responses were coded for specific literacy constructs to identify the nature of literacy activities performed at home, the frequency of use of reading materials by children and parents, the inclusion of routine literacy activities and literacy-based interactions at home, and the attitudes of children and parents toward literacy activities and environment at home. The HLE information is important for families, speech-language pathologists, and education practitioners to encourage enrichment of home experiences for overall literacy development in children from lower socioeconomic status.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe home literacy environments and characteristics, such as parent/child interaction and availability of literacy materials.
    • Describe the importance of parent and children interaction within the household.
    • Identify opportunities to encourage and improve literacy within households, such as allowing access to books and interacting with children while reading books.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 38 - Advocacy and Action: The Speech-Language Pathologist’s Role in Affecting Change Within the Judicial System

    Lauren Wrigh-Jones, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Dani Critzas, BA, Fontbonne University

    This poster session will consist of several literature reviews discussing growing evidence indicating that adolescents in contact with the youth justice system are likely to have severely compromised oral and language skills. In addition, this poster session will discuss the rate of recidivism and the effects of exposure to law enforcement on the youth population and prevalent racism impacting minorities. Lastly, this session will explore the facets of our society’s system that lack understanding regarding neurological and intellectual impairments.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define at-risk youth populations within our judicial system.
    • Identify factors that contribute to at-risk youth populations.
    • Discuss the speech language pathologist’s role in affecting change within the judicial system.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 39 - Differences in Stress Between Clinical Graduate Programs

    Susan Fulton, CCC-A, Southeast Missouri State University; Allyssa Poston, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Graduate school can be a stressful time for students for a multitude of reasons such as excessive homework, financial difficulties, and personal stressors. The goal of this study was to investigate stress levels for graduate students studying speech-language pathology (SLP), Special Education, Psychology, and counseling, as well as events considered the most stressful. An original survey targeting situations specific to speech-language pathology graduate students and the Perceived Stress Scale, an evidence-based survey widely used to identify life stressors, were used to determine perceived stress for graduate students studying in SLP, Special Education, psychology, and counseling programs in the states of Missouri, Illinois, and Kentucky. Participants rated levels of stress using a Likert scale (one to five) addressing clinical responsibilities, classroom examinations, homework, managing relationships with others in their life, maintaining an outside job if necessary, and procrastination. The study is ongoing. Results will be examined to determine which level of schooling induce the greatest stress level for graduate students in these fields and what specific events are perceived to have the highest levels of stress. Results will be available for the Missouri Speech-Language Hearing Association convention.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify common stressors for clinical graduate students.
    • Identify which clinical program has the highest perceived stress.
    • Differentiate between different types of stress (financial, educational, personal).

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 40 - SLP Perspectives of of IPP With Students Using AAC

    Misty Tilmon, EdD, Southeast Missouri State University; Ashton Glascock, BA, Southeast Missouri State University

    The purpose of this study was to identify the potential benefits and barriers of utilizing interprofessional practice (IPP) with students using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in schools. IPP is the collaboration between different disciplines in order to provide comprehensive services to an individual (Robillard, et al., 2013). Collaboration between disciplines, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs), special education teachers, general education teachers, and paraprofessionals, among others, is recommended when delivering services to users of AAC in schools. IPP may help students with motor, linguistic, or cognitive difficulties achieve increased interaction with instructors and peers, greater participation across settings, and overall greater satisfaction (Ogletree, 2015). While there are obvious benefits, there may be challenges to implementing IPP in the school setting due to fatigue, stress, time-commitment, large workloads, and disputes among team members (Robillard, et al., 2013). In this study, school-based SLPs were asked about benefits, challenges, and helpful strategies to utilizing IPP when delivering services to AAC users. Researchers recruited participants through AAC-related social media groups. Participants completed a spoken interview, answering 13 questions about their values related to IPP, their responsibilities on the IPP team, and communication and teamwork strategies they used. Interview responses were analyzed to identify common themes in order to help school-based SLPs identify benefits and barriers of using IPP and predict how these will impact outcomes for AAC users on their caseloads.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify at least three benefits and barriers of IPP when delivering services to students using AAC.
    • Predict how benefits of IPP may impact outcomes for students using AAC.
    • Predict how barriers of IPP may impact outcomes for students using AAC.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 41 - Effects of Memory and Social Interaction on Quality of Life in Caregivers of Persons With Alzheimer’s Disease

    Jayanti Ray, PhD, Southeast Missouri State University; Stephanie C. Hughes, BS, Southeast Missouri State University; Katelyn Swaringim, BS, Southeast Missouri State University

    Twenty-four caregivers were recruited through coordinators of various community support groups and organizations. The participants completed an online survey that was geared toward memory and social interaction skills of care receivers, self-efficacy, and overall quality of life of caregivers on a five-point scale. Results revealed that most caregivers provided care to persons with moderate to severe levels of dementia and other comorbidities. Most persons with AD lacked memory and problem solving skills. They also presented with limited social interactions. Most caregivers presented with high self-efficacy since they were cognizant of community and medical resources that are needed to care for persons with AD. Overall, quality of life was rated at 3.61 on a scale of 1-5, ‘5’ being the highest quality of life. Clinical implications: The survey results are likely to inform speech-language pathologists in addressing caregiver burden, self-efficacy, and perceptions of quality of life based on memory and social interaction skills of persons with AD. Information on caregiving strategies and additional can help improve self-efficacy of caregivers thus enhancing their quality of life.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify common areas of concern and burden in caregivers of persons with AD.
    • Describe how memory and interactional skills of persons with AD affect the quality of life of caregivers.
    • Describe strategies that caregivers can use to improve self-efficacy and quality of care for persons with AD.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 42 - The Efficacy of Mental Practice for Word-Retrieval in Persons With Aphasia

    Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University; Erin Bass, BS, Fontbonne University

    This poster session will provide an overview of the definition of mental practice and how it can be used as a treatment method for word-retrieval in persons with aphasia (PWA). The efficacy of mental practice as a treatment method involved in the rehabilitation process specifically for PWA will be summarized. Future research surrounding mental practice will be reviewed.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Define mental practice and its utility for improving performance.
    • Identify methods by which mental practice can be used in the rehabilitation process and specifically aphasia.
    • Discuss mental, practice, as an effective treatment method, and future research surrounding it.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 43- Voice Therapy for Transgender Women: A Systematic Review

    Veronica Fierro, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University; Allison Jarombek, BS, Rockhurst University; Hannah Duke, BS, Rockhurst University; Katelyn Triplett, BS, Rockhurst University

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore what speech-language pathologists should do in voice therapy to help people who are male-to-female transgender sound more feminine and improve their satisfaction with therapy outcomes. This systematic review looked at the effectiveness of several treatment approaches and the participants’ satisfaction with the outcome of therapy. Keywords were searched in several different databases and on the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) website to find the most relevant articles. The criteria for inclusion included: (a) male to female individuals, (b) transgender women, (c) voice therapy, (d) perception of voice, (e) fundamental frequency, and (f) peer reviewed journal article. Articles were excluded if they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Studies that included female to male individuals or individuals who received surgical or other invasive treatment were excluded from the review. Overall, voice therapy is effective at increasing male to female transgender pitch to the female pitch range, and clients are generally satisfied with treatment. Most of the studies included small sample sizes and utilized limited therapies, indicating more research is needed in this area.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Analyze the relationship between the effectiveness of current treatment approaches and how the vocal quality of transgender females is perceived by others.
    • Identify the effects of voice therapy on increasing male-to-female transgender clients’ vocal pitch.
    • Determine the satisfaction of clients who are transgender, male to female, after receiving voice therapy.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

    Poster 44 - Down Syndrome and AAC: A Literature Review

    Lauren Wright-Jones, PhD, Fontbonne University; Macy Frederick, BA, Fontbonne University

    This poster will investigate the effects of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) methods on persons with Down Syndrome (DS). Firstly, it will characterize the common language characteristics exhibited by persons with DS. It will examine evidence-based models of AAC, specifically investigating the evidence for its effectiveness in the language, communication, and social skills of persons with DS. Finally, some preliminary conclusions will be drawn regarding which models of AAC are best suited to help the language development of persons with DS.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Discuss key language characteristics of individuals with Down Syndrome.
    • Differentiate between different modes of AAC.
    • Identify modes of AAC which have been shown to have a positive impact on the language development of persons with Down Syndrome.

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 45 - Deaf Culture and the Latinx Community

    Julia Patnode, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University; Alexis Yoder, BS, Rockhurst University

    The Latinx community holds specific views in regard to the causes of deafness, which stem from religious, folk, and medical reasons. Within the Latinx community, a stigma exists towards those who are deaf. Latinos are also the fastest-growing group within the deaf school-age population. From 2010-2012, it was reported that the highest population of Latinx children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) was in the Western region of the U.S. In this area, Latinx children comprised 40 percent of the DHH population. The high percentage of Latinx children who are DHH may be due to facets of a Latina woman’s life which exhibit a possible connection to three causes of hearing loss: maternal diabetes, low birth weight, and prematurity. These facets of a Latina women’s life include the high rate of diabetes in the Latinx community and poor prenatal care due to lack of medical insurance, low socioeconomic status, low level of education, physically demanding occupations, the immigration journey, and domestic abuse. Further research is needed to determine the exact correlation between these possible causal factors and the high percentage of Latinx children who are deaf and hard of hearing.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Identify the difficulties encountered by Latinx children who are deaf and hard of hearing living in the U.S.
    • Identify the Latinx community’s beliefs in regard to causes of deafness as described by religious, folk, and medical reasons
    • Identify possible causal factors in the high percentage of Latinx children who are deaf and hard of hearing
    • Identify facets of Latina woman’s life which could serve as possible explanations for the high incidence of Latinx children who are deaf and hard of hearing

     

    Level of Learning: Introductory | Multi-Interest

    Poster 46- Longterm Outcomes of Childhood and Adolescent TBI

    Stephanie Becker, PhD, Rockhurst University; Brianna McCarthy, BS, Rockhurst University; Paige Musser, BS, Rockhurst University; Claire Olson, BS, Rockhurst University

    The purpose of this systematic review was to consider the long-term repercussions for children age 0 to 18 years who suffered a TBI earlier in life. Electronic databases were searched for articles published 2010-2020. Six research articles met the criteria. In terms of the impact of age at time of injury on long-term outcomes, it was found that, in general, children and adolescents who experienced a TBI were more likely to demonstrate long-lasting repercussions and required more support than those who did not experience a TBI. However, children age 0 to 4 years may have the least relative risk. All severity levels of TBI showed significantly greater symptoms long-term than controls. When comparing the groups of children with TBI to one another, those with more severe ratings had significantly more long-term repercussions than those who mild ratings. There were no significant differences between males and females in terms of the severity of the long-term outcomes, although males and females demonstrated differences in behaviors. Children and adolescents with TBI will may require support throughout their education career and into their adult life regardless of age at the time of the TBI or severity level of the TBI. The results of this systematic review highlight the need for more long-term studies following children with TBI to assess the efficacy of intervention intended to lessen the long-term effects of TBI.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Describe the long-term outcomes of childhood TBI as it relates to sex differences.
    • Describe the long-term outcomes of childhood TBI as it relates to age at time of injury.
    • Describe the long-term outcomes of childhood TBI as it relates to the severity of the TBI.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

    Poster 47 - Impact of COVID-19 on SLP and Audiologist Practice in Missouri

    Julia Edgar, PhD, Truman State University; Karlie Strawhun, Truman State University; Elaina Bartlow, Truman State University

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the role of the speech-language pathologist and audiologist in the past year. We sought to understand this impact and identify changes in practice. The purpose of this project is to gather information about the usage of PPE (personal protective equipment), telehealth, sanitation/precaution procedures, and professional stress due to COVID-19 amongst Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists in the state of Missouri. Our survey will reach professionals in a wide range of settings (school versus hospital, for example). We hope to delineate differences in use by setting as well as examine the extent of differences noted before, during, and after the pandemic.

    At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

    • Differentiate between sanitation practices that have been adopted in various settings due to the pandemic.
    • Identify the PPE (personal protective equipment) used by speech-language pathologists and audiologists before and during the pandemic.
    • Identify the reported effects of professional stress reported by speech-language pathologists and audiologists during the pandemic.

     

    Level of Learning: Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic