Posters

Part I (Session 30) – Friday, April 3, 5:30 PM – 6:30 PM

SP01 - Acoustic and Aerodynamic Profiles of Student Teachers and Early Career Teachers as a Function of Vocal Fatigue

Allison Walker, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Maria Dietrich, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

Teachers frequently complain of hoarseness, vocal effort and vocal fatigue. In study one, we investigated whether (a) cepstral-spectral measures of dysphonia and (b) aerodynamic measures of vocal function were significantly different in early career teachers with vocal fatigue, based on vocal fatigue index (VFI) scores, compared with controls. In study two, we tested whether VFI scores and acoustic and aerodynamic measures worsened after one semester of student teaching compared with controls. The data are from a larger study classifying neck surface EMG signals for the early detection of vocal fatigue in young adult females. Study one includes 22 early career teachers and 39 controls scoring greater or less than 10 on the VFI-1 (tiredness of voice), respectively. Study two includes 15 (student) teachers and 12 controls to date. Outcome measures are cepstral peak prominence ([smoothed] CPP), low/high spectral ratio, Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia, mean subglottic peak pressure, mean airflow during voicing and laryngeal airway resistance. Preliminary results from study one indicate that mean CPP is lower in teachers than controls. Teachers had also higher laryngeal airway resistance than controls. Preliminary results from study two indicate that mean CPP is lower in teachers than controls regardless of time point, and continues to decline in teachers throughout the semester. In conclusion, greater self-reported VFI-1 scores in non-treatment seeking early career teachers with vocal fatigue are linked with subtle differences in voice quality and laryngeal efficiency potentially underlying the experience of vocal fatigue.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the direction of the link between vocal fatigue index scores and acoustic and aerodynamic measures.
  • Perform Praat analysis as a clinically useful program to determine smoothed cepstral peak prominence.
  • Identify cepstral peak prominence values outside the normal range.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP02 - Anxiety Post-Stroke

Jacob Lendy, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Carmen Russell, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Around 20 percent of those who have had a stroke present with anxiety or anxiety-related symptoms along with change in quality of life and course of treatment of the stroke. This poster will provide an overview of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders in post stroke patients while providing detail into defining characteristics of the disorder. Research related to causes, overall changes in patient emotional state and quality of life will be discussed. This poster will also include information related to incidence of anxiety post-stroke and how this alters both the brain and the course of treatment of stroke. It will also discuss effective treatments to treat anxiety in stroke patients including psychological and pharmaceutical intervention.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify anxiety and other post-stroke related mental health issues.
• Discuss symptoms and indicators of post-stroke anxiety and how it affects quality of life in these patients.
• Assess methods of how to treat anxiety post-stroke, as well as improve quality of life with patients with post-stroke anxiety.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP03 - Are Finances a Limitation to Hearing Loss Treatment in the Middle Class Population?

Jenna Sorensen, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, St. Louis University

Everyday, people of all ages get diagnosed with a variation of hearing loss. Whether the loss is mild or profound, there is some kind of treatment that can be done to mitigate the negative consequences of hearing loss. However, why are many of these individuals declining treatment? This study is to show the detrimental effects that high cost of hearing aids and no to minimum insurance coverage on a middle income class family and how it can create limitations to receiving treatment. Hearing loss may be accompanied by many negative feelings felt by the individual with the loss as well as his or her loved ones. Feelings of anger, guilt, frustration, isolation and even depression are side effects of not being able to hear environmental noise or participate in an effective communication. Many studies have shown that if someone with a severe hearing loss does not wear a hearing aid, there is an increased chance of getting dementia. Hearing aid can cost upwards of $7,000 and must be replaced every three to five years. Most insurance do not cover hearing aid because they are not deemed medically necessary; however, when a person loses their hearing they miss out of crucial elements of their life. Because of this lack of insurance coverage, middle-income families are not able to afford hearing aids and experience the negative outcomes of the lack of treatment.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Recall four negative consequences of not receiving needed hearing loss treatment.
• Describe two reasons to why the lack of insurance coverage on hearing aids most strongly affects the middle income SES families.
• Perform three advocacy efforts to increase coverage on hearing aids.

Intermediate | Audiology

SP05 - Adolescent Voice-Related Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: What, Why and How

Kaitlyn Laughlin, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can help the clinician understand the impact of a voice disorder on an adolescent’s life, develop meaningful treatment plans and monitor treatment effectiveness. PROMs can also help the SLP monitor treatment effectiveness if administered purposely. However, to select the most appropriate PROM, the clinician must understand its underlying basis.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define dysphagia screening and types of dysphagia screening tools for clinical bedside examinations.
• Identify Gold Standards in dysphagia evaluation and components of each
• Identify financials and mortality associated with overuse of thickened liquids.

Track: SLP-Clinical Level: Intermediate

SP06 - A Comparison of Head Mouse and Eye Gaze AAC Access

Caitlyn Colden, BA, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Lisa Proctor, PhD, CCC-SLP, Missouri State University

It is imperative for individuals with complex communication needs (CCN) to have a variety of access methods available that fits their particular needs. Individuals with physical disabilities often require AAC that accommodates limited gross and fine motor movement, such as devices that are activated with eye gaze or movements of the head (e.g., head mouse). Despite being similar in operation, there is limited available research comparing eye gaze and head mouse access methods. This preliminary study aims to contribute to the body of literature examining these two technologies and describe some benefits and challenges of the use of each system over time. Adults without disabilities were selected to participate in the study and were tasked with creating sentences utilizing an AAC application with two AAC access methods, head mouse and eye gaze, across three data collection sessions. Performance over time will be compared between each access method, examining completion time and number of errors during each task. Qualitative analysis of open response items regarding participants’ experience will also be performed to provide user insight.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Distinguish between eye gaze and head mouse access methods.
• List potential challenges of utilizing head mouse or eye gaze.
• Describe differences in use of head mouse and eye gaze.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP07 - Early Intervention: The Use of AAC/AT in Preschool Classrooms

Lucy Guiffrida, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Aaron Doubet, MS, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

This session will provide an overview of the definition of augmentative and alternative communication/assistive technology (AAC/AT), different types of AAC/AT and why they should be used in all preschool classrooms. Previous research on how AAC/AT effectively aided in the development and use of preschooler’s, with complex communication needs (CCN), speech, language, grammar and multi-symbol utterances will be discussed. The availability and use of AAC/AT in local regular preschool classrooms will be summarized. The efficacy of using AAC/AT in preschools for all children, typically developing and those with CCN, will also be reviewed.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Explain the basic definition of AAC/AT.
• Identify different types of AAC/AT.
• Distinguish why AAC/AT aid in speech and language development of preschoolers.
• Assess why AAC/AT should be implemented in all preschool classrooms.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP08 - Graduate Student and Faculty Perceptions of Computer-Based Diagnostic Simulations

Ali Long, BS, Missouri State University
Lauren Jones, CCC-SLP, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Lisa Proctor, PhD, CCC-SLP, Missouri State University

Changes in the clinical use of simulations within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD), specifically speech-language pathology, have recently been implemented into standards for certification by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and simulation activities are increasingly being used in clinical education. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of simulations within a CSD curriculum by obtaining information on the attitudes and perceptions of the students and faculty utilizing software simulations as part of a clinical practicum course. First-year graduation and second-year graduate students were given a quantitative and qualitative survey following their experiences clinical simulation experience. Although most questions on the survey were similar for both groups, first-year students were asked about the use of simulation software in preparation for their first diagnostic experience and second-year students were asked about the use simulation software to acquire competencies for patient populations that they may not have had exposure in their previous clinical experiences. Through a focus group, supervising clinical faculty were asked to share information on the positive and challenging aspects of the simulated clinical experiences. The quantitative and qualitative results of the surveys and focus groups will be shared as well as implications for continue use of the simulation software in the CSD curriculum.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define computer-simulated diagnostic experiences.
• Identify different uses of computer-simulated diagnostic experiences.
• Identify perceptions of students and supervisors regarding computer-simulations diagnostic experiences.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP09 - Adult Interactions With Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Lindsey Wilkins, BA, Missouri State University
Shurita Thomas-Tate, PhD, Missouri State University
Sonia Arora, PhD, Missouri State University
Tara Oetting, MS, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Shurita Thomas-Tate, PhD, Missouri State University

This project is a comparative case study that identified differences in the language characteristics used when adults interact with children who are deaf and/or hard of hearing with amplification devices (i.e., cochlear implants) as compared to the language characteristics when they interact with typically hearing children. Two LENA (Language environment analysis) devices recorded the language environment for 12-16 hours of a pair of siblings (one child who is profoundly deaf with bilateral cochlear implants and one child who is typically hearing). From the language sample, the adult word count (AWC) and conversational turn count (CTC) were analyzed to identify differences in the linguistic characteristics. Implications and recommendations for future research and clinical applications will be provided.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify differences in the adult word count (AWC) and conversational word count (CTC) of adult interactions with children who are deaf or hard of hearing versus typically hearing children.
• List three additional linguistic characteristics that are different within adult interactions with children who are deaf or hard of hearing versus typically hearing children.
• Recognize clinical implications for differences in adult interactions with children who are deaf or hard of hearing versus typically hearing children.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP10 - Cues-Pause-Point Procedure for Treating Echolalia in Autism

Alyssa Armijo, BS, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Missouri State University

Approximately three quarters of verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate echolalia, a form of verbal imitation in which an individual will repeat the words or phrases of others (Violette & Swisher, 1992). While some believe that echolalia may be a functional aspect of language development which leads to generative communication, others view it as functionless and strive to decrease the behavior (Steigler, 2015). Literature regarding echolalia is limited, outdated and inconclusive regarding definitions and views and best approaches to treating echolalia (Steigler, 2015). One approach which has been successful in remediating echolalia and aiding in language training efforts for individuals with ASD is the cues-pause-point (CPP) procedure (Al-Dawaided, 2014; Foxx, Schreck, Garito, Smith & Weisenberger, 2004; Valentino, Shillingsburg, Conine & Powell, 2012). This study is designed to strengthen the evidence regarding the effectiveness of CPP for treating immediate echolalia in English-speaking, school-aged children with ASD.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define the term echolalia and describe the two types, immediate and delayed.
• Identify one procedure which may be used to treat echolalia in children with autism.
• Summarize the cues-pause-point procedure.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP12 - The Perceptions of Missouri Speech-Language Pathologists Regarding the Response-to-Intervention Program and Speech Sound Delays

Claire Wernig, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

The response-to-intervention (RtI) program is a multi-tiered system that is widely used amongst school speech-language pathologists (SLP). Duties of the SLP include RtI involvement in Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 student support teams (ASHA, 2010). In this descriptive study, the perceptions of SLPs’ regarding the RtI program and speech sound delays will be identified. A focus group of school-based SLPs evaluated questions relevant for this research project. An anonymous survey was developed and will be sent to SLPs identified through public-school websites in Missouri. The survey link was sent to each identified SLP and a request for their participation was included in the email-message. A follow-up email was sent two weeks after the initial request. The survey consisted of twelve questions. Results from this research project will reveal how many SLPs are serving students through RtI programs, their perceptions, structure of RtI programs, collaboration techniques and breaks or dismissal criteria used for the RtI programs regarding speech sound delays.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the perceptions of school-based speech-language pathologists regarding the RtI program.
• Identify what structure Missouri SLPs are using to treat speech sound delays for students in the RtI programs.
• Recall what collaboration techniques are used and are most successful in the RtI programs regarding speech sound delays.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP13 - Aided Language Stimulation in a Premature Toddler

Leanna Schulte, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Klaire Brumbaugh, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

A case report involving a client within the University clinic setting. Client was born at 23 weeks gestation and was in the NICU for seven months. Client is now three years of age and has been attending Welch Schmidt Center for Communication Disorders since June 2019. The client has experienced significant growth in language development this semester using CORE communication boards, child-directed play and naturalistic language opportunities. The client’s language profile, goals, intervention strategies and progress will be reported.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe interventions to target aided language stimulation in a premature toddler.
• Implement intervention strategies utilizing visual CORE communication boards to increase MLU in premature toddlers.
• Identify intervention strategies within their own practice to improve communication skills.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP14 - Culinary Professionals' Knowledge of How to Accommodate Customers With Swallowing Disorder

Lauren Williams, BS, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Klaas Bakker, PhD, Missouri State University

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) model, the ability to participate in social activities, such as eating out, is crucial to one’s quality of life. Some people with dysphagia may feel deterred from eating at restaurants due to lack of safe options for them to consume. This study will involve surveys given to culinary professionals regarding customers with swallowing disorders in restaurants in the southwest Missouri (Springfield) area. This will give insight into the amount of knowledge culinary professionals have about how they could improve the restaurant experience for those with swallowing disorders and analyze questions that these professionals may have about these types of customers as well. This study is essential for the field of speech-language pathology because it may indicate the importance and need for the education of culinary professionals about certain accommodations needed for customers with dysphagia. Providing education on this topic to hospitality workers could improve the quality of life of those who have swallowing disorders.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe themes found in answers from culinary professionals regarding how they modify food to accommodate dysphagia patients.
• Understand how the fields of speech-language pathology and hospitality could collaborate to improve the lives of people with swallowing disorders.
• Identify three common questions culinary professionals have about customers with swallowing disorders.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP15- Perception of Physical Characteristics Based on Voice

Alyssa Keune, Truman State University
Rachel Fortney, Truman State University
Maddi Thomason, Truman State University
Supervisor: Ilene Elmlinger, AuD, Truman State University

This study sought to examine how humans make connections between vocal qualities and physical characteristics and how these connections influence communication. In the study, voice samples were taken from individuals of different genders, heights and weights. Participants were then asked to listen to the voice samples and determine the person’s physical characteristics (height, weight and gender), as well as rate the pleasantness of the voice. Each participant’s perceptions were then compared to the actual physical characteristics of the speaker as well as seeing how the pleasantness ratings compared. The information gathered about the rated pleasantness of a person’s voice and the correlation between the voice and perceived physical characteristics could be beneficial in fields that rely on successful and pleasant communication (human resources, hospitality, business, etc.). It could give insight to employers in these fields about which candidates may be better suited for those kinds of jobs simply based on their voice, as well as what people already in the field can do with their voice to increase pleasantness in occupational interactions.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the physical characteristics that were most often associated with particular vocal qualities.
• Compare and contrast the qualities of male voices versus female voices.
• Identify the ways a person’s voice influences their success in communication.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP16 - Analysis of Reported Therapeutic Effects of Aphasia Choir Participation

Sarah Dixon, BA, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Aphasia affects more than two million people in the United States, according to the National Aphasia Association. In addition to speech therapy, quality of life is an area of interest for speech-language pathologists working with this population. This study aims to investigate participation in an aphasia choir as a form of therapy to not only improve quality of life overall for those with expressive aphasia, but to directly remediate frustrations with speech, as well. It was hypothesized that quality of life and overall intelligibility of speech would increase in those with expressive aphasia. Using an online survey, information provided by families, caregivers and people with expressive aphasia was used to explore the efficacy of aphasia choir participation.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the benefits of aphasia choir participation for those who exhibit expressive aphasia.
• Explain how singing could work to improve speech over time through hemisphere recruitment.
• Determine if aphasia choir is appropriate for an individual.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP17 - Effects of PANDAS/PANS on Communication: Implications for the SLP

Lauren Miller, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Aaron Doubet, MS, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

PANS, or pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome, is characterized by a dramatic onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as obsessions, compulsions, tics, depression and anxiety. This syndrome is typically triggered by infections, metabolic disturbances or other inflammatory reactions. PANS is the overall category in which PANDAS falls, with which the trigger is the streptococcal infection. PANS can cause deterioration of a child’s school performance. More specifically, the child may suddenly present with ADHD, deficits in memory and cognitive changes. Speech, language and feeding can be impacted due to the antibodies attacking the brain in response to PANDAS/PANS. A child may suddenly begin stuttering or even develop selective mutism. Because of this, children with PANDAS/PANS are at a higher chance of coming across an SLP’s caseload. It is important for the SLP to know the characteristics of PANDAS/PANS in order to make appropriate referrals. Proper diagnosis and medication management can assist in the process of controlling PANDAS/PANS.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define PANDAS/PANS.
• Explain communication needs as a result of PANDAS/PANS.
• Discuss the appropriate role of the speech-language pathologist.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP18- Overview on Feeding an Infant With a Cleft Palate

Annie Crane, University of Missouri
Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

It is well established that infants with isolated cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, have feeding difficulties that require modifications and/or compensations (Reid et al., 2007). Some infants with cleft lip and/or palate experience only mild difficulties, while others may have more significant feeding difficulties (Masarei et al., 2007). This poster reviews the available evidence and expert opinion to report current feeding guidelines. Strategies to facilitate feeding success and optimize growth and development are emphasized.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify and describe the three types of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VP insufficiency, VP incompetency and VP mislearning).
• Describe the obligatory speech features of VPD and differentiate these from compensatory articulation errors associated with VPD.
• Describe two specific evaluation techniques for assessing resonance.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP19 - Client Versus Clinician’s Perception of Student Clinician’s Clinical Confidence

Lauren Lewis, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Ashton Eastin, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

During the first year as a graduate student in a speech-language pathology program, students are required to complete a clinical practicum. This clinical experience often leaves many students feeling incompetent as they are not confident in their knowledge and application of skills learned in undergraduate classes. While previous studies have compared the perception of clinical confidence of graduate students and their supervisors, there is a lack of evidence regarding clinical confidence of student-clinicians compared to the perceptions of clients (Larson, 2007). Finch, Fleming, Brown, Lethlean, Cameron and McPhail (2013) found that even though students had coursework addressing various methods of treatment, their anxiety was not reduced when beginning treatment during the first year of graduate school, leaving students with a feeling of incompetence. The current study utilized a survey to investigate the perceptions of confidence level of 18 first year graduate students and 26 clients. The student-clinician survey included ten questions developed to assess perception of clinical confidence. The client survey included eight questions developed to assess perception of the student-clinician’s clinical confidence by clients and caregivers. Results will be presented and a discussion of the results will be provided.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Explain reasons as to why first-year speech-language pathology graduate students lack clinical confidence.
• Describe current research regarding clinical confidence of speech-language pathology graduate students.
• Analyze their own performance in a clinical setting based on their schooling, experience and knowledge of research.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP20 - Examining the Relationship Between Executive Function and Morphosyntax

Rachel Kendrick, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Stacy Wagovich, PhD, University of Missouri

Executive function (EF) refers to a set of cognitive processes that allow us to control emotions and behavior. There are three specific components related to EF: inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition describes being able to control one’s response, suppressing the dominant response in favor of a different one. Working memory requires one to hold information in memory while manipulating it in some way. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to shift from responding in one way to responding in a different way. These EF skills begin their development in early childhood, at the same time as children are developing language. EF and language are believed to be intertwined, such that language use may allow for the development of EF skills, and EF skills may facilitate progress in language development. In this study, we focused on one aspect of language: morphosyntax. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between morphosyntax in conversational language and measures of EF obtained through parent report and direct measurement. Preschool-age children participated in a series of language and EF tasks and produced a play-based language sample, analyzed using CHILDES/CLAN (MacWhinney, 2000) to obtain three measures of morphosyntax. Results will be interpreted in terms of the developmental implications of the observed interplay between morphosyntax and EF during the preschool years. Future research and clinical implications will be provided.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define the three components of executive function.
• Describe the results of the study.
• Describe one future direction of this work.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP21 - Communication Development of Children Who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing Living in Urban vs. Rural Areas

Kayla Winkler, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Catherine Schroy, PhD, CCC-A, Fontbonne University

Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HOH) and their families are faced with many challenges in the process of developing communication skills. The setting in which a family lives, urban or rural, can indirectly cause more difficulties in communication development. Information on this topic was collected through family/professional interviews and an academic research review. The issues that arose as primary difficulties for families with children who are D/HOH living in rural communities included limited access to early identification/intervention services, qualified professionals, and necessary resources. Through the use of telepractice, these challenges can be reduced.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify factors impacting the communication development of children who are D/HOH.
• Identify the benefits and drawbacks of using telepractice with children who are D/HOH, specifically those living in rural areas.
• Analyze the elements influencing rural area professionals’ and general public’s knowledge of children who are (D/HOH).

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

Part II (Session 31)- Saturday, April 4, 7:00 AM – 8:00 AM

SP22 - Increasing Social Communication for Children With Autism Using AAC

Kesli Arnone, BA, Rockhurst University
Elizabeth Batman, BA, Rockhurst University
Addy Brown, BS, Rockhurst University
Lauren Merlo, BS, Rockhurst University
Natalie Seaton, BS, Rockhurst University
Supervisor: Pamela Hart, PhD, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University

The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective strategies to increase social communication for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This is important because individuals with ASD often have difficulty interacting with others due to limited social interaction and communication abilities. Using a systematic review methodology, multiple databases and journals were searched to find the best available evidence for this question. Results indicated that promotion of social communication via AAC is most effective when using peer mediated supports, prompting and time delay. Implications for SLPs will be presented.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the most effective strategies to increase social communication for individuals with ASD who use AAC supported by evidence.
• Describe the importance of social communication skills for individuals with ASD.
• Provide implications of current study and directions for future research regarding peer mediation and interventions for individuals using AAC with ASD.

Advanced | SLP-Educational Topic

SP23 - Communication-Related Quality of Life in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis

Caroline Fowler, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that can affect young population aged 20-40 years. Persons with MS can experience speech and language problems throughout the course of the disease that can affect their ability to engage in daily communication and maintain quality of life (QOL). Given the limited research on the communication-related QOL in neurodegenerative conditions, such as MS, the purpose of this survey study was to explore how communication skills impact the activities of daily living, social interactions and overall perception of quality of life in persons with MS. A brief online survey on the perception of speech and language problems was designed for the study. The survey was distributed to various national as well as international MS organizations to target participants with MS around the world. The target population included a group of 50 English-speaking persons living with MS. The results indicated that effective communication between the persons with MS and their communication partners is crucial to positive perception of QOL. Empowering persons with MS through education on communicative effectiveness, knowledge of speech and language problems and self-motivation can help support assumptions of normal life in the community while maintaining their daily activities in an environment of hope and optimism.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the impact of communication-related problems on activities of daily living in persons with MS.
• Identify the impact of communication related problems on social interactions in persons with MS.
• Identify the impact of communication related problems on the overall perception of quality of life in persons with MS.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP24 - Intubation and Dysphonia

Derek Nugent, University of Central Missouri
Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Gregory Turner, PhD, University of Central Missouri

Dysphonia is a potential complication of premature birth. Medical or biological damage can result in abnormalities to the structure or function of the larynx. Very premature infants require intubation to assist with respiration and this intubation may cause laryngeal damage that later results in dysphonia. This poster presentation will describe the relationship between intubation and dysphonia and the potential negative impacts of dysphonia on academic achievement.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define dysphonia
• Discuss the relationship between intubation and dysphonia
• Discuss the potential impact of dysphonia on academic achievement.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP25 - Effect of Acute Stress on Listening Comprehension in College Students

Rania Daoud, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, St. Louis University

College students experience a great amount of stress, especially during exam time. Students are expected to attend class and continue to learn while studying for and taking exams. We are going to explore the effect of acute stress from exams on listening comprehension in college students. We are hoping to explore the implications of possible decrease in listening comprehension on the effectiveness of attending class during midterm and final exams. The question we are aiming to answer is how does acute stress affect listening comprehension in college students? In order to answer this question, college students will fill out questionnaires to determine stress levels before and during exam time. Students will participate in auditory processing assessment to test listening comprehension. The staggered spondaic word assessment will be used to determine listening comprehension ability during period of acute stress.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Differentiate between attention and listening comprehension.
• Identify factors of stress for college students.
• Identify an assessment of listening comprehension.

Intermediate | Audiology

SP26 - Knowledge and Perceptions Among Beginning College Students Regarding Speech-Language Pathology

Brooke Picou, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

There is a need for more speech-language pathologists throughout Missouri in a variety of settings. Although more professionals are needed, the Southeast Missouri State University Department of Communication Disorder’s undergraduate enrollment numbers are not increasing. The aim of this survey was to determine the knowledge and perceptions of first-year college students regarding speech-language pathology and the Department of Communication Disorders at Southeast Missouri State University. Beginning college student’s knowledge and perceptions about the field will help to better recruit undergraduate and graduate students to the department. The long-term goal is to create awareness for potential students and create interest to declare a major and become a speech-language pathologist.
This study surveyed more than 130 first-year students at Southeast Missouri Students in fall 2019. It included questions about what they knew and how they perceived speech-language pathology. Demographic information was also collected to determine how it influenced their knowledge and perceptions of the field. Results and conclusions are ongoing and will be available at the time of the presentation.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe first-year student’s knowledge and perceptions of speech-language pathology and the Department of Communication Disorders at Southeast Missouri State University.
• Summarize variables that contribute to first-year student’s knowledge and perceptions of speech-language pathology and the Department of Communication Disorders at Southeast Missouri State University.
• Apply the findings regarding first-year students knowledge and perceptions of the field and department for future recruitment efforts.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP27 - Effects of Animal Assisted Therapy in the Speech-Language Clinic

Kaitlin Seabourne, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Susan Fulton, AuD, Southeast Missouri State University

Animal assisted therapy (AAT) is a technique which incorporates animals into therapy sessions to promote and improve specific goals. AAT has shown benefit in a variety of settings (e.g. emotional and behavioral, intellectual, neurogenic disorders and language disorders), however limited data is available regarding effects on goal achievement, motivation and clinicians’ perceptions of AAT in the speech-language clinic. This study focused on the use of AAT in pediatric articulation therapy sessions. Five participants, three to nine years of age, participated. Participants were divided into two groups. Out of a 10-week trial, each group received five weeks of AAT once a week and five weeks of no AAT. Two therapy dogs, certified through Pet Partner’s and Therapy Dogs International, participated in this study. Percent increase in therapy goals, with and without the dogs present, were measured, as well as administration of a small questionnaire regarding the clinicians’ and participants’ perceptions of AAT. Results are currently being analyzed and will be presented at the time of presentation.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the effects of Animal Assisted therapy on speech therapy goals.
• Describe the perceptions of supervisors and animal handlers after using Animal-Assisted therapy.
• Identify limitations associated with Animal Assisted therapy.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP28 - Life Participation Approach to Aphasia and Communication Disorders Students and Incorporating Technology

Amanda Webb, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the life participation approach to Aphasia (LPAA) on individuals who have a diagnosis of aphasia, along with investigating what knowledge students have of communicating with this population. This study modified a recent study that was done by Erin Allen, MA, CCC-SLP, in 2018. The original study piloted the LPAA program at Southeast Missouri State University; however, the current study was modified for the communication, trainings and tests with the student volunteers by incorporating and utilizing technology. The Life Participation Approach to Aphasia program supports individuals and their caregivers by providing them with the opportunity for community reintegration. To engage with the adult, three student volunteers were assigned to meet within the Cape Girardeau community, provided that they would be the ones to interact with the adult with aphasia for a minimum of 30 minutes, two times a month, over the course of four months. The researcher gathered data to investigate the quality of life outcomes of the adults participating in the program based on the results of the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39 which was administered at the beginning and end of the study. Student perspectives were investigated regarding their knowledge of aphasia, along with how to communicate with an individual who has aphasia. These perspectives were analyzed using pre- and post-tests. Student volunteers also completed subjective weekly logs of strategies used to communicate, location and duration of activity.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the life participation approach to aphasia.
• Summarize the approach, methods and outcomes of the study.
• Apply their knowledge of the life participation approach to aphasia and how it affects those involved in the approach.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP29 - Effects of MIT and Tactile-Kinesthetic Cues on Broca's Aphasia and AoS

Angela Mann, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Misty Tilmon, MA, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is an intervention program used to remediate and improve the expressive communication abilities of individuals who have experienced trauma to the left-hemisphere of the brain. Several studies have indicated a necessity for more information regarding specific benefits of MIT. For this study, the traditional approach to MIT was adapted to the meet the needs of the participant. Specific techniques, such as left-handed tapping, intoning and humming were utilized during intervention. Tactile-kinesthetic cues are primarily used to remediate articulatory errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and limited information exists regarding its efficacy on adults with apraxia of speech (AoS) and related disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of MIT techniques and tactile-kinesthetic cues on a 55-year old male, 10-years post-stroke with chronic acquired apraxia of speech and Broca’s aphasia. Pre- and post-test data were collected to determine the impact of intervention on expressive communication ability. Several factors which impact an individual’s ability to expressively communicate were analyzed including: (a) the participant’s perceived quality of life related to communication ability, (b) articulatory precision in structured, multi-syllabic speech tasks and (c) intelligibility of conversational speech as perceived by an unfamiliar listener. Results are currently being analyzed and will be completed by the time of presentation. Data collected in this study will add to literature regarding the efficacy of MIT techniques and tactile-kinesthetic cues on expressive language and perceived quality of life of an individual with AoS and Broca’s aphasia.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Summarize the effects of melodic intonation therapy techniques and tactile-kinesthetic cues on the communicative quality of life of an individual with co-occurring Broca’s aphasia and acquire.
• Describe the effects of melodic intonation therapy techniques and tactile-kinesthetic cues on the intelligibility of an individual with co-occurring Broca’s aphasia and acquired apraxia of Sp.
• Identify the effects of melodic intonation therapy techniques and tactile-kinesthetic cues on the articulatory precision of an individual with co-occurring Broca’s aphasia and acquired apraxi.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP30 - New Generation of AAC: Are SLPs Prepared?

Erin Losin, BS, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Saneta Thurmon, MA, CCC-SLP/A, St. Louis University

As the number of people who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is growing and as technology is evolving, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) must be up to date on current practices surrounding AAC. Communicating with one’s family, friends and peers is a basic need for every human person. However, not everyone is able to verbally communicate with others. People with complex communication needs are typically unable to communicate with others via oral communication and therefore rely on AAC to communicate with those around them. Since almost four million people within the United States have complex communication needs, it is crucial that all SLPs have taken an AAC course and obtained clinical competencies within this discipline to be knowledgeable on how to provide intervention to clients who use AAC. If SLPs are unfamiliar with how to treat clients who utilize AAC, their clients will not be receiving services they are entitled to. SLPs can help give a voice to those who are voiceless and restore someone’s confidence to communicate with others, so it should be required that all SLPs are trained on how to treat clients who utilize AAC. The results from a survey will be discussed to identify the extent of knowledge SLPs have on AAC.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the growing need for all speech-language pathologists to be trained on how to provide intervention to clients who utilize Augmentative and Alternative Communication.
• Evaluate if current speech-language pathologists are adequately prepared to provide intervention for clients who use AAC.
• Identify various resources that speech-language pathologists can utilize to prepare them to work with their clients who use AAC.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP31 - Parental Decision-Making-Process of Children With Autism

Morgan Abegg, BS, Rockhurst University
Catherine Echols, BS, Rockhurst University
Supervisor: Pamela Hart, PhD, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that impacts communication, social skills, and behavior. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in 59 children are diagnosed with autism and it is found to be four times more common in males. There are various treatment approaches that are used to help treat ASD. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that parents considered when selecting a treatment approach for their child with ASD. Data was collected through a survey administered via social media. Results and implications will be presented.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe key features of ASD.
• Compare and contrast scientifically validated treatments versus non-scientific validated treatments.
• Describe considerations used by parents when selecting treatments for their child with ASD.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP32 - Parents' Perceptions of Cleft Lip in Infants

Briana Linder, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the school and medical settings work with individuals who have craniofacial anomalies. In addition to potential cognitive and feeding problems, these children are at risk for adverse emotional and behavioral outcomes. Many families may not be prepared for the long-term medical support these children will require. Most people are not educated on the birth defect and some families may be unaware of the condition’s presence until the birth of their child. Several factors influence caregivers’ feelings toward their child’s birth defect, including the therapy phase in which the child is participating, the parents’ or caregivers’ levels of education and awareness and the emotional and medical support systems available. This presentation will discuss some of the more common craniofacial anomalies with which SLPs should be aware, specific associated risk factors and helpful resources.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define craniofacial anomalies and etiological bases
• Describe risk factors for emotional and behavioral outcomes
• Discuss relationship between craniofacial anomalies and educational impact
• Identify resources for support and further education.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP33 - Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Adults With Dysphagia

Madeline Guyer, BS, Rockhurst University
Bethany Milligan, BS, Rockhurst University
Sarah Marx, BS, Rockhurst University
Melanie Wang, BS, Rockhurst University
Supervisor: Shatonda Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University

The purpose of this study was to examine the available research to determine whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation is an effective treatment method for treating dysphagia in the adult population. This topic is important to examine because research and understanding of on the use and administration of NMES is misunderstood. The researchers completed a systematic review of the literature, searching multiple databases. Seventeen articles were identified as the best available evidence for this question. Results and implications will be presented.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
• Identify the muscles used with neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
• Determine if neuromuscular electrical stimulation is an effective treatment for dysphagia.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP34 - Patient-Provider Communication in Inpatient AAC

Ellie Zempel, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Aaron Doubet, MS, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

This poster will provide a definition of effective patient-provider communication and an overview of the barriers to and risks of poor patient-provider communication in an acute setting. The use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) supports in inpatient settings to improve patient outcomes and to benefit both patient and provider will be discussed. Strategies to implement AAC tools and the role of the SLP in supporting effective patient-provider communication will be identified.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Explain the importance of effective patient-provider communication in an acute setting.
• Describe communication barriers and myths which may lead to adverse medical events.
• Identify the role of SLPs in implementing AAC in acute settings.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP35 - Efficacy of Constraint-Induced Auditory Therapy on Wernicke’s Aphasia

Alison Theobald, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Susan Fulton, AuD, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Misty Tilmon, MA, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

The purpose of this research project was to determine if auditory comprehension deficits associated with Wernicke’s aphasia are improved after receiving constraint-induced auditory therapy (CIAT). This research project also aims to determine if CIAT is an efficacious treatment program for improving auditory comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia. CIAT is an auditory training program using dichotic digits to strengthen auditory processing skills in an individual’s deficit ear. Dichotic digits are presented in each ear simultaneously, so the individual hears a different number in each ear. The individual is then instructed to identify the number presented in the deficit ear. This study involved one male in his seventies with Wernicke’s aphasia and persistently severe auditory deficits. Over the period of the study, March 2019 to December 2019, the participant received CIAT intervention biweekly. Withdrawal periods were dependent on the schedule of the clinic where services were offered. The outcome measures of this study were obtained via the following pre- and post-test measures: the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39 (SAQOL-39), the Quality of Communication Life Scale (ASHA QCL), the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA), the Left Hemisphere Inventory of the Burns Brief Inventory of Communication and Cognition (Burns Inventory), the Competing Environmental Sound (CES) Test and Dichotic Digits. The data collected as a result of post-testing measures were compared to the pre-intervention measures administered after the withdrawal periods. Data is currently being analyzed and will be available during the Convention.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify whether constraint-induced auditory therapy has an effect on the quality of life of a person with aphasia.
• Identify whether constraint-induced auditory therapy will improve auditory comprehension as measured by the Burns Brief Inventory of Communication and Cognition (Burns Inventory).
• Identify whether constraint-induced auditory therapy improved the client’s scores on competing environmental sounds (CES) and dichotic digits.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP36 - Perception of Vocal Health by Elementary and Middle School Teachers

Gabrielle Aultman, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Jacqueline Aultman, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Previous studies focusing on the high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers have suggested that vocal loading and lack of knowledge of vocal health might lead to vocal disorders. Voice disorders can occur over the course of a teacher’s career and can impact their quality of life and overall ability to communicate both in and out of the classroom. There is limited research on how elementary and middle school teachers perceive their vocal problems and overall vocal health. The purpose of this qualitative survey study was to investigate how elementary and middle school teachers perceive their voice problems, vocal health status and the impact of their voice problems on their teaching career. The participants included 10 elementary and 10 middle school teachers. Procedures included a brief survey on voice problems and vocal health created by the researchers followed by a video conference call during which the researchers provided education on vocal health. Preliminary results indicated that the teachers were aware of their vocal problems and overall vocal health impacted by their profession; however, they were unsure of implementing vocal strategies to ensure the maintenance of optimum professional voice. Future studies are needed to facilitate vocal health-based education and screening in teachers who experience high vocal loading during work.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe voice problems in elementary and middle school teachers.
• Describe vocal health-based problems in elementary and middle school teachers.
• Identify vocal health strategies to maintain optimum voice for professional voice users.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP37 - The Efficacy of Expansion Points Intervention in Young Children With Speech Sound Disorders: A Multiple Baseline Design

Ashley Gibson, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Klaire Brumbaugh, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

This purpose of this study was to evaluate the modified expansion points as an intervention for preschool children with speech sound disorders (SSD) using single-subject multiple baseline methodology. Three children with moderate to severe SSDs participated in expansion point interventions. Four phonemes were targeted for each child. Probe data was collected during baseline, intervention and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance. All three of the participants demonstrated gains by the end of the intervention phase.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Understand how expansion points intervention differs from traditional articulation intervention.
• Demonstrate ability to select appropriate targets and stimuli.
• Understand what the expansion points is and how to implement it in therapy.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP38 - Perceptions of Communication Disorders, Dietetics and Nursing Students Toward IPE

Eilish Overby, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Jeffrey Damerall, JD, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Misty Tilmon, MA, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Although interprofessional education (IPE) is considered a crucial element in the preparation of health professionals, a model of best practices has not been established. This study was designed to add to the literature base and assist graduate programs in evaluating the perceptions of students regarding a collaborative learning experience among undergraduate nursing and dietetic students and graduate speech-language pathology students. Students from the three disciplines participated in an experiential learning event in which foods and liquids were prepared according to the standards of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI). From the recruited participants (n=49), 33 completed a pre-survey and 29 completed post-survey and 14 participants completed a pre- and post-interview. The survey and interview evaluated student perceptions and knowledge of allied professionals’ roles in the management of swallowing disorders. Quantitative and qualitative responses were analyzed to compare students’ knowledge and perceptions before and after the collaborative lab. This study provides some evidence that students who participate in an IPE gain a better understanding of their own roles and the roles of future health care team members.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the roles of a speech-language pathologist, nurse, and dietitian in the management of swallowing disorders.
• Describe the importance of interprofessional education in managing the care of patients with swallowing disorders.
• Evaluate the success of the interprofessional lab on swallowing management described in the study.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP39 - Evaluation of Speech Disorders Associated With Cleft Palate and Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

Julie Meyer, BS, BHS, University of Missouri
Anne Bedwinek PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

ASHA SIG 5 offers this poster as a practical review of assessment and management approaches for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Causes of VPD are outlined and types of resonance disorders are described. This poster focuses on differential diagnosis and management algorithms for addressing articulation and resonance disorders in children with repaired cleft palate and/or suspected VPD. Collaboration between the community speech-language pathologist and the Cleft Palate Team is emphasized.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify and describe the three types of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VP insufficiency, VP incompetency and VP mislearning).
• Describe the obligatory speech features of VPD and differentiate these from compensatory articulation errors associated with VPD.
• Describe two specific evaluation techniques for assessing resonance.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP40 - Measuring Identity in Individuals With Aphasia at Fontbonne University

Caroline Koenig, BA, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

This research proposal will discuss how modifying a pre-existing identity scale can measure whether G.R.A.C.E. therapy at Fontbonne University works to increase a sense of identity in individuals with Aphasia. G.R.A.C.E therapy will be outlined and defined as well as Identity and Aphasia. Baseline results from the modified identity scale of five G.R.A.C.E. participants and five non-G.R.A.C.E. participants will be published and compared.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Interpret the modified identity scale.
• Distiguish the difference between Wernicke’s and Broca’s Aphasia.
• Explain how individuals with Aphasia can benefit from group therapies such as G.R.A.C.E..

Intermediate | Multi-Interest

SP41 - Fluency and Sound System Disorder: What to do?

Madeline Broekelmann, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Lauren Wright-Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Stuttering is a complex disorder that requires a multi-dynamic approach and becomes increasingly more complex when a comorbidity is present; therefore, this poster will present the available data on the comorbidity of fluency and sound system disorders in preschool aged children. Specifically, this poster will provide background information relating to the epidemiology of stuttering in terms of onset, speech characteristics, predictive factors and current evidence-based practice. Background information pertaining to a sound system disorder and common therapeutic approaches will be discussed as well. Current research will provide an overview of the prevalence of sound system disorders within the population of individuals with a fluency disorder in addition to discussing the relationship between stuttering, phonology, and language. Research regarding current clinical practice when treating both disorders and the efficacy behind treating both at the same time will be provided. Lastly, this poster will discuss the efficacy behind treating both disorders in young children.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Recall the epidemiology of stuttering and differentiate from a phonological disorder.
• Discuss the relationship between phonology, language, and stuttering.
• Recall treatment approaches commonly used with both stuttering and phonology.
• Identify previous and current treatment approaches for addressing both disorders.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP42 - Successful Community Early Language and Literacy Events

Kaitlyn Laughlin, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Kimberly Stewart, MS, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

This poster presentation will highlight the early language and emergent literacy activities which are implemented by the University of Central Missouri National Student Speech Language Hearing Association (NSSLHA) Chapter and how other speech-language pathologists and students in communication disorders programs can offer similar events in their communities. Collaboration with other agencies, interested groups and sponsors is essential. Home literacy programs are provided.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify community needs for early language and emergent literacy enrichment in communities.
• Describe literacy enrichment efforts at Saturday Stories and Slices and at home by community members.
• Describe possible collaborations with Parents As Teachers, Head Start and other community entities that all support the development of early language and emergent literacy.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

Part III (Session 63)- Sunday, April 5, 7:15 AM – 8:15 AM

SP43- Hearing Assistive Technology in the Classroom

Kendall Werhane, BS, Student, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, St. Louis University

Hearing assistive listening devices (HAT) are more common in special education classrooms and special school districts, but their use can expand beyond these classrooms. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has implemented guidelines and standards for background noise in unoccupied classrooms, but previous studies have found that no matter the child’s hearing abilities acoustics in many current classrooms are not conducive for an optimal learning environment. In my research, I hope to understand how we can inform teachers and institutions that HAT can be helpful for all students not just those who are hard of hearing or those who have a hearing impairment. Teachers and administrators will be asked a series of questions regarding their experiences in classrooms and with assistive technology. These survey questions will answer questions regarding two different aims. Aim one is to conclude if teachers and/or administrators are aware of the benefits of using HAT in the classroom. Aim two focuses on how many schools are using HAT and to discover the major barriers to implementing HAT into the classroom. Once data is collected and percentages from responses are reported, I hypothesize that from aim one it is to be expected that many teachers and administrators will not know many benefits to HAT. From aim two, I hypothesis that it is to be expected that there will be less than 10percent of schools who are using HAT and that the common barrier will be the financial burden or a lack of education about the deceives.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the benefits of hearing assistive technology in the classroom.
• Know the number of schools using hearing assistive technology.
• Know the common barriers with hearing assistive technology being used in the classroom.

Intermediate | Audiology

SP44 - Perceptual and Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Daycare Teachers

Karley Smith, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

There is a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers; however, there are limited studies regarding perceptual and acoustic characteristics of voice disorders in daycare teachers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptual, acoustic and self-perceptual characteristics of voice in daycare teachers. In this study, ten participants (N=10), ages 22 to 52 who work in daycare centers, were recruited to participate in the study. The Consensus auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice (CAPE-V) and an interview were completed to garner subjective data. The PRAAT program was used to collect acoustic data pertaining to jitter, shimmer, harmonic-noise ratio, frequency and amplitude from various voice samples. The participants completed the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) to provide data on psychosocial consequences of voice disorders. The results indicated a relationship between the perceptual, acoustic and self-perceptual characteristics of the voice of daycare teachers. The results of this study are likely to benefit daycare teachers by increasing their knowledge and self-perception of vocal discomfort or voice problems.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe acoustic voice characteristics in daycare teachers.
• Describe perceptual voice characteristics in daycare teachers.
• Identify the level of awareness and psychosocial consequences of voice problems in daycare teachers.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP45 - Social Communication Deficits in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Antonia Simmons, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Catherine Schroy, AuD, Fontbonne University

Social communication deficits are characterized by difficulties in social interaction, social cognition and pragmatics. These skills include but are not limited to responding to others, using gestures and talking about emotions and feelings and often occur in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research reveals that males are three to four times more likely to receive a diagnosis of ASD than females. Diagnostic criteria for ASD are more often related to symptoms presented by males rather than females because of this imbalance. This can result in females with ASD being misdiagnosed or receiving a later diagnosis. This review of literature will provide current research in the areas of social communication in children with ASD including differences in behaviors of this population by gender and age. Recognizing these deficits in social communication abilities may result in treatment options with more specific goals that affect the day-to-day life of children affected.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify social communication traits in those with ASD.
• Recall the differences in social communication.
• Identify treatment implications for social communication deficits.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP46- Transgender Communication Therapy: Knowledge and Perceptions of Speech-Language Pathology Students

Kathryn Dinsmore, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Martha Cook, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Introduction: With an increase of awareness of transgender individuals and their needs involving communication therapy, speech-language pathologists are now required to have cultural competence with this population. There is a paucity of literature that analyzes the readiness of future speech-language pathologists regarding transgender communication therapy. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to determine if communication disorders graduate programs in Missouri are preparing future clinicians to be competent in the treatment of transgender individuals and to identify any biases or misconceptions that communication disorder graduate students in Missouri have regarding transgender communication therapy. Method: An online survey was distributed to graduate students currently enrolled in communication disorders programs in Missouri containing questions about the LGBTQ+ community and transgender communication therapy. Results: Results will be included following data collection.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify patterns of preparation of students from graduate programs in Missouri in the area of transgender communication therapy
• Identify three misconceptions about the LGBTQ+ community that are prevalent among the participants in the study
• Describe the relationship between exposure to transgender communication therapy and perceived knowledge of transgender communication therapy

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP47 - Hearing and Music: The Good, the Bad and the Beneficial...

Emily Kroesen, University of Central Missouri
Elizabeth Hatfield, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

When reviewing the literature on music and its effect on phonological abilities, my group members and I found that a musical background does enhance one’s phonological abilities. After reviewing the literature, we developed a study that will involve the music department at our university. We will use the Distorted Tune Test which evaluates one’s ability to recognize common tunes. We will also use the comprehensive test of phonological possessing (second edition) to assess the phonological abilities of the individuals within the music department. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we hope the results of our study will reflect what the literature found: that music does enhance one’s phonetic ability. Also after IRB approval, my group members and I will evaluate the hearing of music educators and music professors with many years of musical training. This will evaluate if any hearing loss or hearing sensitivity has occurred from their musical experiences. We will also interview different music educators on what measures they are taking to ensure their students are not developing hearing loss. After completing this study, we will present at the MSHA Convention to provide further research on music and how it applies to speech-language pathology. We hope to provide attending speech-language pathologists and aspiring speech-language pathologist ideas on how to educate musicians on hearing loss and how to apply musical teachings to enhance phonological abilities in perspective clients.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the effects of hearing loss related to musical training and experience.
• Identify what phonological abilities are associated with musical training.
• Improve the knowledge of hearing and music for the fields of speech-language pathology and audiology.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP48 - The Impact of iCST on Cognition and Quality of Life

Lydia Cameron, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Cognitive stimulation therapy is a group treatment for people with mild to moderate dementia that has been shown to improve both their cognition and quality of life (Spector et al., 2003). Its individual counterpart, individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST), does not have the same evidence base. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of iCST on cognition, quality of life and social functioning in older adults with mild to moderate dementia. A convenience sample of two participants with a diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia was recruited from assisted living facilities in Southeast Missouri. Participants participated in iCST sessions twice a week for eight weeks. Baseline measures and post-treatment measures were obtained using the Saint Louis mental status exam (SLUMS), the social functioning in dementia scale (SF-Dem) and the quality of life-Alzheimer’s disease scales (QoL-AD). Data analysis showed that cognition improved but quality of life and social functioning did not.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe cognition, quality of life and social functioning in people with dementia.
• Identify the different treatment components of iCST.
• Discuss the potential mechanisms of change underlying cognitive improvement due to iCST.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP49 - UCM Students’ Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Individuals With a Disability/em>

Melody Dale, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, outpatient clinics and schools, to name just a few. These settings are well known to both student and licensed SLPs and are frequently included within curricula and used for clinical training sites. These sites are where students and SLPs will work with clients of varying diagnoses and disabilities. This presentation will discuss disability bias, including what it is, its potential impact on therapeutic outcomes and potential methods for reducing its presence.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define disability bias
• Evaluate the potential risks of disability bias on therapeutic outcomes
• Discuss the implementation of potential programs for reducing disability bias.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP50 - Improving Spanish-English Disordered Language With Bilingual Speech-Language Services

Sandra Hernandez, Maryville University

This research study examines the effect of bilingual speech-language services on the disordered language skills of Spanish-English speaking children between the ages of two to six when rendered by a bilingual speech-language pathologist at a mid-western clinic. The research study was conducted by a second-year graduate speech-language pathology student at Maryville University in St. Louis Missouri.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify a correlation between improved language skills and bilingual therapeutic services.
• Determine the efficacy of bilingual speech-language intervention.
• Discuss a summary of the literature on improving Spanish-English disordered language with bilingual speech-language services.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP51 - Influence of Vocabulary Depth and Breadth on Text Type

Claire Elliott, BS, University of Kansas Medical Center
Mindy Bridges, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Kansas Medical Center
Supervisor: Mindy Bridges, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Kansas Medical Center

Reading comprehension is a complex skill that involves many components of language including vocabulary and comprehension plays a larger role in upper elementary and middle school students (Ouellette & Beers, 2010). Vocabulary measures can examine the depth or breadth of a student’s vocabulary (Cain & Oakhill, 2014). Vocabulary breadth measures the number of words a student knows while vocabulary depth measures how much a student knows about words in terms of lexical, semantic, and syntactic information. Though other studies have explored the effects of vocabulary depth and breadth on overall reading comprehension (Cain & Oakhill, 2014; Ouellette & Shaw, 2014; Lawrence et al., 2019; Dickinson et al., 2019), this project investigates the relationship between vocabulary depth and breadth on different text types (narrative versus expository) in middle school students. Participants in this study included students in grade six across the Midwest who have been followed since kindergarten as part of a longitudinal study. As part of this study, students were administered the following assessments in kindergarten: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (breadth) and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Word Definitions and Word Classes (depth). Multiple regressions will be conducted to see how these scores predict their reading comprehension of expository and narrative text in sixth grade. This study will also provide clinical implications for the importance of teaching vocabulary in a variety of ways to expand children’s breadth and depth of vocabulary.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the difference between vocabulary depth and breadth.
• Explain the relationship between these types of vocabulary and reading comprehension.
• Identify clinical implications for the impact of vocabulary depth and breadth on reading comprehension in middle school.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP52 - Language/Cognition Components of Religious Expression for Clients Post CVA

Derek Nugent, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

This presentation will provide information on the difficulties with language and cognition clients face pertaining to the expression of their religious beliefs after a CVA. The three most common types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s and Global) that commonly follow a CVA will also be defined and their respective impacts on religious expression will be discussed. The impact on emotional and cognitive functioning due to an inability to fully engage in religious practice will be discussed. Lastly, interventions to be possibly used by SLPs to support language use and cognitive functioning in avenues of religious expression will be explained.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the different language/cognitive challenges clients living post CVA face in religious expression.
• Describe the differences and similarities between Broca’s, Wernicke’s and Global aphasias and how they can impact religious participation.
• Identify why and how SLPs can support the religious expression of their clients through cognitive and language therapies.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP53 - Representation of Individuals With Communication Disorders in Popular Children's Literature

Bryn Medley, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Klaire Brumbaugh, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

In the course of this presentation, the concept of representation will be defined, along with its significance. Then, the results of a content analysis conducted by the presenter will be provided regarding the current state of the depiction of individuals with communication disorders in popular children’s literature.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define representation.
• Explain why representation is important.
• Summarize how individuals with communication disorders are represented in popular children’s literature.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

SP54 - Phonological Awareness Intervention of Low Socioeconomic Preschoolers

Emily Fischer, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Lillian Bull, BS, Southeast Missouri State University
Supervisor: Jayanti Ray, PhD, CCC-SLP, Southeast Missouri State University

Studies have shown that phonological awareness skills of preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families were significantly lower than those of children from average/upper-SES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of phonological awareness training on the pre-literacy skills of four- and five-year-old preschoolers from low-SES backgrounds. The research questions addressed in this study included the following: 1) Is there a significant difference in pre-literacy skills of low-SES preschoolers who participate in phonological awareness intervention when compared to low-SES preschoolers who received no phonological awareness intervention; 2) Is there significant improvement in the syllable segmentation, sound segmentation, sound manipulation, rhyming and/or syllable/sound blending skills of low-SES preschoolers who have participated in a phonological awareness intervention program? Participants attend a Head Start program in Missouri. The control and experimental groups each consisted of seven participants. In this experimental single subject design, participants were assessed prior to and following intervention using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes-2nd Edition (CTOPP-2) and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL). The experimental group received six weeks of phonological awareness intervention. The intervention program included six classic children’s literature stories, one story per week. Intervention activities included syllable deletion, sound matching and blending sounds in words. The control group participated solely in arts and crafts activities related to the children’s story. Results included comparisons of pre- and post-test results of the experimental and control groups. The results confirmed the importance of phonological awareness skill training for developing adequate reading abilities.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the deficits in phonological awareness in children with low socioeconomic status.
• Identify specific phonologic awareness interventional tasks for four- and five-year-old preschoolers.
• Compare the outcomes of the phonological awareness intervention between the control group and experimental group.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP55 - What is Critical Thinking? CSD Faculty Understandings and Perspectives

Traci Monroe, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

Speech-language pathology students are instructed to use critical thinking on a daily basis when completing coursework and clinical practica. In order to create these professionals, critical thinking must be a staple in a clinician’s ability to provide effective therapy to individuals. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) suggests critical thinking be incorporated into coursework for all speech-language pathology students to educate future professionals on what critical thinking is and how it should be used in the field of speech-language pathology. Educators should introduce this topic to students within each accredited institution. This study will explore the perceptions, understandings and thoughts on thinking critically and how it has been conceptualized and introduced to students of the faculty in the communication disorders program at the University of Central Missouri (UCM).

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify UCM CSD faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking.
• Describe faculty members’ openness to incorporating critical thinking activities into coursework.
• Determine faculty members’ preparedness to provide opportunities for students to think critically.

Intermediate | SLP-Educational Topic

SP56 - Pulse Rate Recovery after Physical, Swallowing and Speech Tasks in Healthy College Students

Naomi Raible, Truman State University
Samantha Smith, Truman State University
Supervisor: Julia Edgar, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

Pulse oximetry is often used in the clinical setting to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with dysphagia. Anecdotally, speech-language pathologists have successfully used changes in oxygen saturation and pulse rate, measured with finger pulse oximetry, to gauge the work of eating. However, there is little normative data available on heart rate changes during a meal, or more importantly, changes in response to compensatory strategies for enhancing swallowing safety. Such information would be helpful when working with patients with dysphagia, especially if they experience cardio-pulmonary issues, such as COPD, in tandem. The purpose of this study was to use finger pulse oximetry to determine changes in pulse rate associated with various swallowing tasks in healthy, young adults as a foundation data pool. Swallowing tasks included hard swallow, double swallow, the 100 ml water swallow test and consecutive solid food swallows. Speech and physical fitness tasks were also conducted with pulse rates measured as supplemental information regarding the overall health of the individual and as data to be compared to in future studies of older populations, those with COPD and ultimately those with dysphagia.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe how to correctly and efficiently hard swallow.
• Interpret pulse oximetry data in tandem with physical, speech and swallowing tasks.
• Determine high, moderate or low level of fitness based on responses to the long version of the international physical activity questionnaire.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP57 - The Speech and Language Development of Internationally Adopted Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Adam Neff, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Jenna Voss, PhD, LSLS Cert. AVT, Fontbonne University

The purpose of this study was to explore how international adoption influences the speech and language development of children with hearing loss and how professionals can be better prepared to serve this population and their families. This was accomplished through interviewing adoptive parents and professionals who have worked with internationally adopted children with hearing loss as well as reviewing current literature related to the topic. Twelve professionals and parents were interviewed, including four speech-language pathologists, six parents, one audiologist and one adoption agency coordinator. These parents and professionals were asked questions regarding the intervention, prognosis and potential difficulties of working with internationally adopted children. Through their answers to these questions and current literature, several conclusions can be made that may help parents and professional support the speech and language development of international adopted children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe potential barriers to speech and language development of internationally adopted children who are deaf and hard of hearing.
• Differentiate the intervention, prognosis and parental difficulties of internationally adopted children who are deaf and hard of hearing and children who are born in the United States.
• Identify how professionals can better support internationally adopted children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP58 - Time and Perception of Use in Different Language Representation Software

Stashia Casimir, BS, Missouri State University
Supervisor: Lisa Proctor, PhD, CCC-SLP, Missouri State University

Individuals using high-tech AAC to communicate have many software options to choose from when selecting a language system. This study’s aim was to determine if caregiver (i.e., typical-functioning adults) perspectives of different language organization software systems improved over time with continued practice. Participants were found via convenience sampling and spent a total of three hours over a three week period gaining exposure to two high-tech AAC core-vocabulary language software programs: LAMP Words for Life and TouchChat with Word Power. Data was collected on the perceptions of both programs at the conclusion of each session to track changes over time. Results will be analyzed and reported at presentation of study.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the methods used to teach the AAC applications.
• Identify potential perspectives of individuals newly introduced to AAC applications.
• Identify strategies for teaching communication partners about AAC applications.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP59 - SLPs Perceptions Toward Music Therapy

Demi Waggoner, BS, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Bonnie Slavych, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

Music therapy is defined as the use of music and musical elements (e.g., sound, rhythm, melody and harmony) to facilitate and promote communication, relationships, learning, mobilization, expression, organization and other therapeutic objectives to meet cognitive, physical, emotional, mental and social needs. Music therapy has been proven to treat a variety of disorders including aphasia, depression, autism spectrum disorders and Alzheimer’s, just to name a few, as well as benefit a vast range of ages. Speech-language pathologists provide speech, language, cognitive and swallowing therapy. Given the benefits that music has on learning and memory, integrating music into speech-language pathology sessions could result in better therapeutic outcomes. To successfully integrate music, however, one must understand its usefulness and its appropriateness.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Discuss the why of integrating music into speech-language pathology sessions.
• Discuss the relationship between music and neuroplasticity.
• Discuss ways to integrate music into speech-language pathology sessions.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP60 - What is Known About the Dual Diagnosis of ASD and Down Syndrome

Brielle Henne, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Lauren Wright-Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

The poster will provide an overview of the definition, symptoms, incidence and prevalence of the dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome. The profiles of individuals containing solely ASD or Down syndrome will be distinguished from those with the dual diagnosis. Individuals with DS-ASD will be broken down into two groups and the general ways in which they present will be described. The researched treatment methods for the dual diagnosis will be briefly discussed.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define the dual diagnosis of ASD and Down syndrome.
• Identify the incidence and prevalence of DS-ASD.
• Describe the two main ways DS-ASD presents.
• Identify what research has been done for DS-ASD treatment.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

SP61 - The Tradition of Comps

Taylor Reinsch, Truman State University
Abby Moore, ABD, Truman State University
Supervisor: Amy Teten, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

The purpose of this research project is to compare the masters level comps processes utilized between different speech-language pathology programs. A survey was sent out to the programs in Missouri, its bordering states, as well as Colorado and Indiana. The participants of this survey included each of the speech-language pathology graduate program directors from these universities. ASHA completed a study about 23 years ago that compared different comps processes throughout the country (Cunningham, Purvis, Baker, & Windmill, 1996). At that time, 73 percent of speech-language pathology graduate programs used written only or written and oral methods of comps for evaluating their students. The desired result was to find if any other graduate schools do not use comps and use another method, like Truman State University. Questions in the survey revolved around the methods used for comps, time investment, reasoning behind graduate requirements and the timeline of any changes to the comps process that have been seen throughout the history of the graduate level programs. First, the survey was created and was sent out to the program directors in January 2020. Once the data was collected through the survey sent out, the results were analyzed to see how the comps process has evolved throughout the past 25 years or so. The results will be reported at the MSHA Convention as well as Truman State University’s Student Research Conference.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Explain and understand how the comps process has evolved in the past 25 years.
• Describe different forms of comps in Midwestern universities.
• Describe the program directors’ perceptions of the comps process.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP62 - Relative Fundamental Frequency of VCV Productions in Teachers and Controls Over Time

Ashton Reilly Strong, BS, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Maria Dietrich, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

Teachers frequently complain of vocal effort and vocal fatigue. In study one, we investigated whether relative fundamental frequency (RFF) offset cycle 10 and onset cycle 1 values were significantly different in early career teachers with vocal fatigue (vocal fatigue index [VFI]) compared with controls (a) averaged across three time points and (b) over time, averaged across groups. In study two, we tested whether RFF values worsened (became smaller) after one semester of (student) teaching. Study one includes 14 early career teachers and 24 controls to date scoring greater or less than 10 on the VFI-1 (tiredness of voice), respectively. Study two includes 15 (student) teachers and 12 controls to date. Outcome measures are RFF offset 10 and onset 1 values derived from VCV productions (afa afa afa ifi ifi ifi ufu ufu ufu) produced throughout a 20 minute speech production protocol. Data were analyzed with a semi-automated MATLAB algorithm. Preliminary results for study one indicate that offset 10 and onset 1 values were generally worse for controls than teachers. Over time, offset 10 values increased for both groups but teachers had more negative values at time three. Onset 1 values increased over time for controls and decreased for teachers but teachers still had higher onset 1 values at time three. Data for study two are in analysis. A preliminary conclusion is that RFF onset cycle 1 values may be more sensitive to a vocal loading challenge and may reflect vocal fatigue than RFF offset cycle 10 values.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe how relative fundamental frequency (RFF) is determined.
• Identify differences between offset cycle 10 and onset cycle 1 relative fundamental frequency (RFF) values.
• Will be able to recall the three factors of the vocal fatigue index.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

SP63 - Therapy Techniques for SSDs in Children With Repaired Clefts

Caitlin Strohm, BA, University of Missouri
Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Anne Bedwinek, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Missouri

ASHA Special Interest Group 5, Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, Continuing Education Committee offers this poster as a practical guide for therapeutic management of school-aged children with speech disorders associated with repaired cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Appropriate referral to a craniofacial team and evidence-based treatment techniques are emphasized.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe three general therapy guidelines for children with cleft palate speech or VPD.
• Identify and describe common compensatory articulation errors associated with cleft palate speech or VPD.
• Describe three specific speech therapy techniques to achieve correct articulatory placement.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic