Technical Sessions

Student Technical Session I (Session 18) – Friday, April 3, 1:15 PM – 3:45 PM

ST01 - A Comparative Study of Articulatory Performance Among Progressive Dysarthrias

Kristina Adler, University of Missouri
Morgan Hakenewerth, BS, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, University of Missouri

Disease-related changes in articulation are known to contribute significantly to the progressive loss of speech intelligibility in talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although prior studies have primarily investigated articulatory performance in these conditions separately, they support the notion that there may be similar as well as disease-specific mechanisms that contribute to speech loss in these progressive dysarthrias. Further, existing studies suggest that articulatory performance may vary depending on the speech stimuli used. Yet, comparative studies that have systematically investigated articulatory motor performance as a function of stimulus complexity in ALS and PD are lacking. Therefore, the current study sought to compare tongue motor performance in ALS and PD as a function of stimulus complexity at the word level. 3D tongue (tip and dorsum) movement data were obtained from 15 healthy controls and 15 talkers each with PD and ALS for 10 target words that were categorized as either high or low complexity, based on the framework by Kent (1992). Tongue speed and range of motion (ROM) were averaged across five to ten repetitions of each word to determine between-group differences in tongue motor performance. Compared to controls, the PD group showed significant reductions in tongue tip ROM only for high complexity words. Although the ALS data are still being analyzed, based on previous studies, significant decreases in movement extent and speed are expected for this group relative to controls even for relatively simple utterances. Clinical and theoretical implications of the findings will be discussed during the presentation.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Differentiate between articulatory changes observed in dysarthria due to ALS and PD.
• Identify how tongue motor performance is affected in individuals with ALS and PD.
• Describe one method for determining phonetic complexity.
• Summarize how phonetic complexity affects tongue motor performance in individuals with ALS and PD.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST02 - Assessing Classroom Readiness Post-Concussion in College Student-Athletes

Isabel Hotop, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Carmen Russell, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

The immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive test (ImPACT) is a commonly used computerized neurocognitive test for concussion management in college student-athletes. This assessment is heavily relied upon by athletic trainers to make decisions regarding timing of return-to-play and return-to-learn for college student-athletes. Predicting when students are ready to return-to-learn is imperative for their success in the classroom. However, the current evidence shows that the validity and reliability of the ImPACT may be lacking. As of ten years ago, a single study had yet to demonstrate the validity of the ImPACT by comparing the scores to traditional neurocognitive testing. Traumatic brain injuries are within the scope of practice for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and they utilize traditional cognitive test batteries to assess their clients. Because this area of research is still in its infancy, this study compared ImPACT scores to standardized cognitive assessments used by SLPs for predicting college student-athlete’s readiness to return to classroom post-concussion.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the difference between commonly used computerized neurocognitive testing for college student-athletes and traditional standardized testing.
• Identify the weaknesses of current return-to-learn practices for college student-athletes.
• Identify the role of the speech-language-pathologist in management of the return-to-learn process.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST03 - College-Aged Students’ Perceptions of Personal Characteristics Based on Voice

Emma Zimmer, Truman State University
Molly McGrady, Truman State University
Supervisor: Amy Teten, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

The purpose of this project was to determine how college students perceive the vocal quality known as glottal fry. The reason the researchers chose to look at this is because glottal fry usage is becoming a trend, especially among young women. Participants included students enrolled in a public speaking course in order to control the level of understanding of public speaking skills. The participants listened to three different voice recordings of varying levels of glottal fry (minimal, some, excessive) and were given a questionnaire regarding perceptions of speaker characteristics (confidence, competence, likability and likeliness to value input in a group project) following each recording. The questionnaire also included a demographic survey, including age, year in school, gender, race/ethnicity, Myers-Briggs personality type (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 179), hometown and parents’ level of education. The end goal of this project was to learn how college-aged listeners perceive glottal fry and to find if there are any trends among these perceptions based on demographics of the students. Current literature within this area of study is mostly performed using adult listeners, which is why the researchers chose to look at the perceptions specifically among college-aged students. Data will be collected in January of 2020 and will be analyzed and presented at the Missouri Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in April of 2020.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the differences between how adult listeners and college aged listeners perceive speakers who use glottal fry.
• Describe how a listener’s demographics affect their perceptions of speakers who use glottal fry.
• Describe how perceptions of individuals are affected by their amount of glottal fry usage in speech.

Introductory | Multi-Interest

ST04 - Dysphagia Secondary to Cervical Spine Injury

Hannah Cox, BS, Rockhurst University
Lindsey Busch, BS, Rockhurst University
Rachel Triplett, BS, Rockhurst University
Sierra McCarthy, BS, Rockhurst University
Supervisor: Shatonda Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University

Dysphagia is often primarily associated with an etiology of a stroke in comparison to other known etiologies. Dysphagia as a result of cervical spine abnormalities is an under-recognized condition. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an in depth examination of the current research on cervical spine abnormalities on pharyngeal swallowing abilities with specific regard to the timing aspects of the swallow including UES opening and hyolaryngeal elevation and excursion. This presentation is a dissemination of a previously conducted literature review in partial completion of the masters of science degree at Rockhurst University.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the potential features or symptoms of dysphagia secondary to cervical spine abnormality.
• Identify how cervical spine injury affects the pharyngeal swallow, hyolaryngeal elevation and excursion and upper esophageal sphincter opening.
• Discuss what level of cervical spine injuries are most likely to cause dysphagia and why that is.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST05 - Executive Function in Incidental and Explicit Word Learning by Preschoolers

Jessica Lisenbee, BHS, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Stacy Wagovich, PhD, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Elizabeth Kelley, PhD, University of Missouri

Although the association between executive function (EF) skills and vocabulary knowledge is well documented, the relation between EF and word learning processes is not well understood. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the correspondence between incidental/explicit word learning and both EF and language skills. Preschool-age children, ages 3;1 to 5;4, participated in two word learning tasks and completed vocabulary and overall language testing, performing within normal limits. Parents of the children completed a survey measure of executive function. From this survey, the three aspects of EF, inhibition, shifting and working memory, were analyzed in relation to word learning performance. Results revealed significant relationships between both language tests and explicit word learning, as well as a relationship that approached significance between shifting and incidental word learning. These findings suggest that strong language skills facilitate explicit word learning, whereas strong EF skills in shifting may facilitate incidental word learning. With respect to the latter, additional research is needed to further explore this trend. Clinical implications will be highlighted.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the three types of executive function skills explored in this study.
• Summarize the tasks of incidental explicit word learning.
• Consider how the findings of this study could inform future research in this area.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST06 - Metacognition and Inner Speech in People With Aphasia

Chelsea Dill, BS, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Amanda Eaton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Aphasia results from damage to the language areas of the brain, causing language deficits in reading, writing, speaking and comprehension. This research encompasses various tasks that challenge language, inner speech and metacognition to determine if there is a definite link between each of these abilities in people with aphasia (PWA) caused by stroke. While we know that aphasia causes language deficits, what happens to a person’s inner speech (the voice inside the head) or their metacognitive skills (thinking and monitoring thought processes)? If overt speech is broken, is inner speech broken also? Inner speech has also been thought to contribute to the workings of metacognition. Previous studies have found a possible connection between inner speech and overt speech but what remains to be identified is the connection between inner speech and metacognition. Throughout this study, tasks challenging inner speech and metacognition aim to analyze their connection with each other, as well as overt speech in PWA.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Distinguish between inner speech and metacognition.
• Identify specific tasks that target metacognition versus inner speech abilities.
• Identify possible connections between metacognition and the workings of inner speech in people with aphasia.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST07 - SLP’s Selection of Target Vocabulary for Clients With Language Impairments

Megan Ward, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Sara Steele, PhD, CCC-SLP, St. Louis University

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide intervention to children with language impairments who have limited vocabulary. Evidence-based practice guidelines suggest that SLPs teach children Tier 2 words, or general academic vocabulary, that will help them successfully communicate across the academic spectrum. Previous research has indicated that SLPs rarely teach Tier 2 words; rather, they teach basic concepts and conversational vocabulary and focus heavily on nouns. This study was conducted to determine whether children’s individual needs supersede general best practice guidelines. Using a survey design, SLPs were asked to select vocabulary to teach children with differing ages and severities of language impairments. Additional survey questions asked SLPs about their beliefs regarding instructional methods. Results have implications for graduate and clinical education, as well as for improving clinical practice.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Discuss the tiered approached to categorizing vocabulary.
• Identify the word learning difficulties of children with language impairments.
• Identify how SLPs use different vocabulary tiers in the language intervention sessions.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

Student Technical Session II (Session 58)- Saturday, April 4, 2:30 PM – 6:00 PM

ST08 - Student Perceptions of a Simulated Clinical Experience: A Pilot Study

Haley Elliott, BS, University of Central Missouri
Klaire Brumbaugh, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri
Supervisor: Klaire Brumbaugh, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Central Missouri

For graduate students in a speech-language pathology program to be considered for full certification upon graduation, the students must obtain 400 clinical clock hours of supervised practice. As of 2016, new standards were adopted by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) to include clinical simulation as a way to gather clinical clock hours. Currently, 75 hours may be achieved using this experience. The University of Central Missouri communication disorders (CD) program has adopted the use of Simucase to supplement student hours in selected courses. During the summer 2019 semester, students were assigned to a Simucase clinical practicum experience. The experience required the students to complete a variety of screening and assessment measures on simulated patients via the Simucase platform. Pre-briefing and debriefing of each case were provided for a minimum of 50 minutes each week. Another requirement of the clinical placement was evaluating a live client to practice the skills that were learned during the simulated experience (e.g., reading a test manual, scoring protocols, making proper referrals, synthesizing data and making an accurate diagnosis). The purpose of this investigation is to better understand the student perceptions of this experience.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the benefits of implementing simulated experiences in graduate programs.
• Apply student perceptions and opinions to benefit future implementation of simulated programs.
• Explain how the Simucase experience can be enhanced to more readily translate to clinical practice.

Introductory | SLP-Educational Topic

ST09 - Why Wait? Supportive Evidence for Early Speech and Swallow Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease

Brianna McCarthy, BS, University of Missouri
Ashley Kloepper, BS, University of Missouri
Peter Eskander, University of Missouri
Yang Yang Wang, University of Missouri
Filiz Bunyak, PhD, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Teresa Lever, PhD, University of Missouri

We previously showed that speech and swallow function significantly declines in healthy people over 60 years of age. Here, we extend this work by characterizing healthy aging from Parkinson’s (i.e., an age-related neurodegenerative disease) relative to speech and swallow function. To do this, we used our patent-pending audio-based software to record and analyze several oral diadochokinetic (DDK) and swallow-related tasks performed by 28 individuals with early stage Parkinson’s disease (PD; Hoehn-Yahr Stages 1-2; 21 males, 7 females) and 28 age- and gender-matched controls. Inclusion criteria included: community dwelling, independent ambulation, >26 on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), regular consistency oral diet and no prior speech/swallow therapy. Oral DDK tasks included two 15-second repetitions each of Pa, Ta, Ka, Pa-Ta-Ka and tongue tick, followed by two swallow-related tasks: chewing/swallowing a 1.85 g pretzel nugget in a single bite and continuous drinking of 100 mL of water from a cup. Tongue strength was assessed using the Iowa oral performance instrument (IOPI). Data analysis revealed that participants with PD had significant (p<0.05) deficits in oral DDK (specifically affecting sounds produced by the tongue but not the lips) and swallow function (affecting both drinking and eating rate) as well as tongue strength compared to age-matched controls. Importantly, our finding of significant speech and swallow deficits in early stage PD highlights the need for evaluation and treatment by a speech-language pathologist at disease diagnosis rather than waiting until symptoms are advanced (and perhaps less responsive to treatment) in the later stages of PD. At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: • Discuss that speech and swallow deficits are different in healthy aging individuals versus those with age-related neurological diseases like PD. • Identify that speech and swallow deficits exist in early stage PD and the importance of assessment by an SLP at disease diagnosis. • Identify the advantages of having an objective tool with capabilities to quickly quantify objective measures of speech and swallow function (e.g., number of events, rate, accuracy, etc.). Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic [/gdlr_tab] [gdlr_tab title="ST10 - A Kinematic Study of Tongue Coupling Relations in Dysarthria” active=”no”]
Alexandra Linderer, BHS, University of Missouri
Dylan Thompson, University of Missouri
Molly Sifford, BHS, University of Missouri
Supervisor: Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, PhD, University of Missouri

Typical young adults exhibit relatively independent movement of non-adjacent tongue regions, such as the tip and dorsum during speech production. Such independence, indexed by a strong negative correlation of non-adjacent tongue region movements, allows for adequate phonetic distinctiveness during speech production. Therefore, the degree of negative intralingual coupling is an important metric of speech motor performance that is particularly relevant to our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms that underlie reduced speech precision and intelligibility loss in dysarthria. The aim of the current study was to examine if intralingual coupling is altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether intralingual coupling varies with phonetic complexity demands in PD. 3D electromagnetic articulography was used to track tongue tip (TT) and tongue dorsum (TD) movements of 15 people with PD and 15 healthy controls during 10 target words representing either low or high phonetic complexity levels. Phonetic complexity was calculated using the Kent (1992) framework. Intralingual coupling was estimated from a covariance index comprising the average pairwise correlation and standard deviations of TT and TD movements for each word. Preliminary results from 16 participants show highly coupled intralingual movements for high complexity words in controls. By contrast, in PD, regardless of phonetic complexity, weak intralingual coupling was observed, potentially driven by restricted movement of one or both tongue regions. The study findings will help advance our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms contributing to speech imprecision in PD and will allow us to meet translational needs aimed at developing more sensitive speech assessments for dysarthria.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Define intralingual coupling and state why intact intralingual coupling is important for speech production.
• Summarize how intralingual coupling is affected in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
• Discuss the effects of phonetic complexity on intralingual coupling in PD.
• Understand the contributions of weak intralingual coupling to articulatory imprecision observed clinically in patients with PD.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST11 - Barriers and Facilitators to AAC Implementation in the School Setting

Madeline LIllis, BS, Rockhurst University
Grace Gabriel, BA, Rockhurst University
Amy Owens, BS, Rockhurst University
Supervisor: Pamela Hart, PhD, CCC-SLP, Rockhurst University

The purpose of this study was to investigate common barriers and facilitators of successful augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) implementation. This is an important topic because speech-language pathologists encounter challenges when implementing AAC in schools. The researchers completed a systematic review of the literature, searching multiple databases and journals. Ultimately eight articles were identified as the best available evidence for this question. Results and implications will be presented.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify barriers to successful AAC implementation in the school setting.
• Identify facilitators to successful AAC implementation in the school setting.
• Consolidate results from barriers and facilitators and apply findings to relevant practice.

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST12 - Diaphragmatic Breathing for Acquired Neurogenic Stuttering

Olivia Brown, Fontbonne University
Supervisor: Lauren Wright-Jones, PhD, CCC-SLP, Fontbonne University

Stuttering is a fluency disorder that consists of repetitions, prolongations and blocks. When stuttering occurs in childhood and persists throughout the lifetime, it is considered a developmental stutter (DS) which is the most common form of stuttering. Adults who sustain a stroke, TBI or other type of brain injury can experience acquired neurogenic stuttering (ANS) which is the acute onset of stuttering after a brain injury with no history of stuttering prior. While there are a variety of treatments available for DS, there are significantly less available for ANS. Diaphragmatic breathing is a common treatment for DS but there is no data as to whether it is also effective for ANS populations. This single subject case study aims to determine if diaphragmatic deep breathing can improve fluency in adults with ANS. The participant in this study completed a one month therapy process that included a home program and an in-session therapy program. Results indicated that the participant experienced a decrease in primary stuttering behaviors although more research is required to determine if these findings would be consistent among a larger sample size.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify characteristics useful in the diagnosis of adult neurogenic/acquired stuttering versus developmental stuttering.
• Identify possible treatment methods for acquired fluency disorders.
• Recall the current protocol for treating acquired fluency disorders based on evidence based practices.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST13 - Effect of Onset Age of Musical Lessons on Hearing in Background Noise

Natalie Seidl, St. Louis University
Supervisor: Maureen Fischer, MS, CCC-A, St. Louis University

As a part of learning to play an instrument, musicians develop skills in differentiating between pitches, distinguishing individual melodies from layered musical parts and recognizing differences in timing of rhythms. Because of the changes in the brain that come from being trained in an instrument, research shows that musicians have an advantage in understanding speech with background noise.1 However, does the age at which an individual learns to play the instrument affect these benefits? With language development, we know that there is a critical period in which developing language is easier. Similar to this, scientists have predicted that there is a sensitive period for music training that lasts until children are seven years old.2 To study the effect that the age of onset of music training has on an individual’s hearing, the study will look to see whether subjects who started private lessons in music before the age of seven perform better in hearing speech in noise than those that learned an instrument after. Participants will be divided into groups based on their years of musical experience and their age of onset of training. Data will be collected through testing participants with speech in noise testing to determine if there is a difference in results between those that were trained in music during the sensitive period and those that were trained after. 1 Parbery-Clark, A., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2009). Musical Experience Limits the Degradative Effects of Background Noise on the Neural Processing of Sound. Journal of Neuroscience, (45), 14100. 2 Steele, C. J. ( 1,2 ), Bailey, J. A. ( 1 ), Penhune, V. B. ( 1 ), & Zatorre, R. J. ( 3 ). (n.d.). Early musical training and white-matter plasticity in the corpus callosum: Evidence for a sensitive period. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(3), 1282–1290.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Discuss if the results of our study indicated that early music training results in improved scores on speech in noise testing.
• Identify two ways that music training affects the central auditory nervous system and related CNS structures.
• Describe the difference between a critical and sensitive period.

Intermediate | Audiology

ST14 - Facilitating Positive Implementation of AAC: Professional and Caregiver Perspectives and Challenges

Mary Charlotte Meredith, Rockhurst University
Lexi McQuinn, Rockhurst University
Samantha Powers, Rockhurst University

This systematic review focused on developing a comprehensive framework to guide AAC implementation across the lifespan. The researchers searched multiple databases to identify the best available evidence. Ultimately, 16 high-quality studies were identified and analyzed for common themes. Five critical areas were identified: (1) team approach to AAC; (2) family involvement and training; (3) effective evaluation strategies; (4) proper device upkeep; and (5) personal possession of the device independent from family usage. Implications will be presented.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identifying common barriers inhibiting the successful use of AAC.
• Provide evidence-based facilitative strategies.
• Disseminate facilitative strategies to team (professionals and family).

Introductory | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST15 - Listener’s Perception of Voice Change Following Two Different Vocal Cool-Downs

Gretchen Sadler, BA, Truman State University
Savannah Ott, BA, Truman State University
Abbie White, Truman State University
Savannah Moore, Truman State University
Supervisor: Julia Edgar, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

Vocal warm-ups are commonly accepted as beneficial among professional singers. However, vocal cool-downs are much more controversial. A previous study found no significant difference in acoustic measures between a vocal cool-down exercise consisting of five minutes of kazoo use and ten minutes of vocal rest in a cappella singers. However, the a cappella singers perceived their vocal quality to be better following a kazoo cool-down. This leads to the question of whether an unfamiliar listener can perceive a difference in the voice quality of these singers following the two different forms of vocal cool-downs. The current study investigated if an unfamiliar listener perceived any difference in vocal quality between the pre-cool-down and post-cool-down recordings and if there was any perceived difference in vocal quality between the two forms of vocal cool-down (vocal rest or kazoo). Thirty undergraduate students scored 36 pairs of voice clips generated from 15 a cappella singers reading a short sentence from a previous study. The participants rated the vocal quality of the second clip as the same, better or worse than the first clip. The participants listened to the 36 pairs of voice clips through a pair of headphones in a quiet room in the Truman Speech and Hearing Clinic. Each phrase was also analyzed for cepstral peak prominence. By the time of presentation, statistical analysis on the data will be completed and the results will be interpreted.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify two different forms of vocal cool-down.
• Identify differences in acoustic, self-perception and listener perception of voice quality.
• Define cepstral peak prominence.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic

ST16 - Motivations and Outcomes of Accent Modification Students - WITHDRAWN

ST17 - Student Perception of Hearing Aids and Healthy Hearing Practices

Emily Goerlich, Truman State University
Supervisor: Ilene Elmlinger, AuD, Truman State University

Hearing aids make great changes for the better in the lives of people who use them. However, stereotypes and negative beliefs about hearing aids decrease the likelihood that those who are in need of hearing aids will wear them. This research interviews college students majoring in either communication disorders or music, both pursuits where good hearing is essential and emphasized. It seeks to find out the students’ general view of hearing aids and hearing aid users, in addition to which stereotypes are most prevalent and damaging and what measures students are taking (or not) to prevent needing amplification in the future.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Describe the overall attitude of college students toward hearing aids and their willingness to wear them.
• Identify which negative beliefs about hearing aids are most prevalent and damaging.
• Identify trends in healthy hearing practices of and use of hearing protection by college students.

Introductory | Audiology

ST18 - Training Program Addressing Glottal Fry Severity and Vocal Self-Perception

Thea Cornwell, Truman State University
Supervisor: Amy Teten, PhD, CCC-SLP, Truman State University

The purpose of this research was to determine if a vocal training program would impact female college-aged students’ severity of glottal fry and their self-perception of voice. If so, how are these factors impacted? Participants were asked to read the Grandfather Passage which was audio recorded by the researcher. These recordings were later analyzed and rated by the researcher and the mentor on a severity scale of 0-5, where 0 is the absence of glottal fry and 5 is a severe amount of glottal fry. Participants then completed a survey regarding their self-perception of voice (e.g., self-rating of confidence, professionalism and kindness). Participants were then asked to attend six weekly group sessions where the researcher provided education regarding the glottal fry register and the literature relating to the perception of glottal fry. In addition, voice facilitating therapy approaches (e.g., chant speech, focus, and semi-occluded vocal tract exercises) were implemented. The participants were asked to complete the approaches at least twice a week for 10 minutes outside of weekly sessions. The participants then read the Grandfather Passage aloud and completed the self-perception survey again. The glottal fry severity of the participants and the self-perception surveys prior to and after the training sessions were analyzed to determine the impact the training program had on the participants. Data analysis was not available prior to the submission deadline but will be completed before the convention. Results will be verbally and graphically portrayed.

At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:
• Identify the current perception of glottal fry in the professional world.
• Identify how education regarding glottal fry along with vocal training impacts vocal self-perception.
• Identify how education regarding glottal fry along with vocal training impacts glottal fry severity.

Intermediate | SLP-Clinical Topic